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ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Causes
↑ Insensible water loss or perspiration (high fever, heatstroke)
Overuse of diuretics
GI losses—vomiting, NG suction, diarrhea, fistula drainage
Inadequate fluid intake
Third-space fluid shifts—burns, intestinal obstruction
ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Causes
Excessive isotonic or hypotonic IV fluids
Long-term use of corticosteroids
ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Clinical manifestations
Restlessness, drowsiness, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Thirst, dry mucous membranes
Decreased skin turgor, ↓ capillary refill
Postural hypotension, ↑ pulse, ↓ CVP
↓ Urine output, concentrated urine
↑ Respiratory rate
ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Clinical manifestations
Headache, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Jugular venous distention
Bounding pulse, ↑ BP, ↑ CVP
Polyuria (with normal renal function)
Dyspnea, crackles (rales), pulmonary edema
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