How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

5 terms

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID IMBALANCES

STUDY
PLAY
ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Causes
↑ Insensible water loss or perspiration (high fever, heatstroke)
Diabetes insipidus
Osmotic diuresis
Overuse of diuretics
Hemorrhage
GI losses—vomiting, NG suction, diarrhea, fistula drainage
Inadequate fluid intake
Third-space fluid shifts—burns, intestinal obstruction
ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Causes
Excessive isotonic or hypotonic IV fluids
Heart failure
Renal failure
Primary polydipsia
SIADH
Cushing syndrome
Long-term use of corticosteroids
ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Clinical manifestations
Restlessness, drowsiness, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Thirst, dry mucous membranes
Decreased skin turgor, ↓ capillary refill
Postural hypotension, ↑ pulse, ↓ CVP
↓ Urine output, concentrated urine
↑ Respiratory rate
Weakness, dizziness
Weight loss
SEIZURES, COMA
ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Clinical manifestations
Headache, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Peripheral edema
Jugular venous distention
Bounding pulse, ↑ BP, ↑ CVP
Polyuria (with normal renal function)
Dyspnea, crackles (rales), pulmonary edema
Muscle spasms
Weight gain
SEIZURES, COMA
Same clinical manifestations
lethargy, confusion
seizures, coma