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Sociology of Race & Ethnicity
Terms in this set (84)
Which of these is a key concept of Common Orthodox Marxist approaches to race?
A recent study came out that explores how individuals in middle schools develop their racial identity through interactions and academic performance. This is what type of approach?
How might someone who takes a Marxist approach to race approach an issue related to neighborhood segregation in 2018?
In order to keep the neighborhood economically stable, non-upper-class racial minorities are kept in lower service jobs barring them from affording houses in the area.
Intermarriage and the rise of multi-racial identities has led to a closing of the color line.
________ refers to how continual waves of migrants from certain parts of the world harden racial boundaries between the immigrant group and the mainstream, or majority, group.
Wilson comes to the conclusion that explicit racial policies will not rectify racial inequality in the United States, instead we need to focus on the economic subordination.
What is the name of the pigment in the skin that develops our skin color?
Referring back to the study of race and interviewer effects on perception of skin color, how did white interviewers rank black respondents on the skin color scale?
Darker compared to black interviewers
Name 1 critique of classical assimilation theory.
Not all immigrant groups want to assimilate into the host society
What are the three major stages in classic assimilation theory?
Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Ending Prejudice/Discrimination
What is the process by which a group acquires the social and psychological characteristics of their host society, often across three major stages?
The socio-spatial apartheid (i.e., neighborhood segregation) that leads to intentional and accidental dynamics that contribute to premature death of many racial minority groups refers to which of the following?
______ refers to the manner in which a society is demographically or culturally uniform.
__________ refers to the process in which race operates as a central axis of social relations, which then determine social, economic, and political institutions and practices
Racial contestations refers to ____________________________.
struggle of racial groups for systemic changes regarding their position at one or more levels
According to Lee and Bean's assessment of the 2000 US Census, which racial group reported the lowest percent of multiracial individuals?
This practice was developed as a way to judge intelligence and mental capacity based on the size of the cranium, its shape, and geography, which was then applied in racialized ways.
Which of these refers to the Marxist approach that assumes minority groups are a tool of the bourgeoisie to divide the working class and further economic exploitation?
Common Orthodox Theory
Prejudice refers to the way in which actions that take place against a racial group based on their racial identity.
Marcel was born to an affluent white family and raised with an ideology that everyone should pull themselves up by their bootstraps to succeed. Although Marcel recognizes overt forms of racism, he believes that individual outcomes are due to one's own choices and success since "segregation is no longer legal." Therefore, Marcel does not recognize that race may act as a societal stratifying mechanism. This would be a form of what?
Race is considered an achieved status.
Which of the following refers to a social status that is given to an individual at birth?
In regards to this class, white supremacy refers to individual actions by people who believe in overt white superiority.
Which of the following refer to some of the ways in which Herbert Blumer defines the basic types of feeling that seem to be always present in race prejudice of the dominant group?
A feeling that the subordinate race is intrinsically different or alien/a fear and suspicion that the subordinate race harbors designs on the prerogatives of the dominant race
What was the name of the process in which biological theories of race were used to justify non-consensual genital mutilation?
If there is no evidence of discrimination but continues to be the presence of prejudice, this person would be considered what?
Although some argue the conception of race came out of the 18th century, other scholars argue that it was a product of what century?
____________ was the individual who headed the first sociological school in Atlanta, GA.
Power and Prejudice
U.S. Census categories are sensitive to influxes of migrant populations who differ over time in their ability to be accepted into the American Mainstream.
What was the first migrant group to be included on the 1870 Census?
_________ racism refers to racism that assumes inherent differences between the races and has led to multiple human rights atrocities.
According to Van Den Berghe, what are the three principles on which all human socities are organized?
Kin Selection, Race as a tool of evolution, and Homogeneity of Populations
Bonilla-Silva discusses refers to this term as "societies in which economic, political, social, and ideological levels are partially structure by the placement of actors in racial categories or races."
Racialized Social System
According to Reyna's article on "Looking 'Illegal'", what have been some of the ramifications of the United States' construction of "illegality" in relation to immigration?
Conflation of race, legal status, nativity, and generation, Discrimination across multiple contexts, and Negative treatment regardless of actual documented status
Which of the following is the definition of "classic liberalism"?
School of thought stressing individual freedom and limited government
_______ rule refers to the belief that an individual with any black ancestry was legally and socially a member of the black race.
Which of the following was the major purpose of the colonial project, specifically the ongoing project of settler colonialism?
Normalize Male Whiteness
Which of the following is an example of systemic discrimination?
___________ refers to knowledges or schools of thought that are excluded from the dominant discourse.
After 1960, the Census continued to have interviewers note the race of the interviewee.
Fails to recognize racism and racial discrimination as an explanatory factor related to racialized societal patterns, often employs individualized explanations, racially-neutral justification for these patterns. This refers to what?
According to functionalist theories of race and ethnicity, race is assumed to be a status position with ascribed value.
W.E.B. DuBois' undermining in the field of Sociology by his peers was rooted in what type of theoretical framework related to race?
According to Tiger (Race, Class, and the framing of drug epidemics), the overuse of what drug became a epidemic when it started affecting white, middle-class communities?
Whitening of resumes refers to the process in which white people highlight their accomplishments to increase their likelihood to be hired.
In North Carolina, politicians have been scrutinized and accused of racist political practices. Specifically, voting districts have been divided up along racial lines to impact voting outcomes to privilege a certain political party. This practice is called what?
White flight reportedly occurs at what threshold of people of color moving into white communities?
Racial segregation has continued to decrease in occupations since the 1960s.
In an attempt to control certain racial groups and criminalize their action, what drug was made illegal in the late 1800s to inhibit Japanese migrants opportunities?
What is the name of the specific process when a person who has been labeled a felon by the state is subjected to losing their voting rights?
Unauthorized Immigrants Have Little or No Negative Effect on the Wages and Employment of U.S.-born Citizens, and Immigrant Workers Have Positive Effects on American Consumers.
Neighborhood's are as segregated today as they were back in the 1960s prior to the Fair Housing Act.
Legal segregation is to _______ segregation as group-level housing choices (e.g., white flight) are to _______ segregation.
de jure/de facto
Which of the following countries did majority of refugees in the United States come from in 2017?
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In the South, police departments used to be which of the following organizations?
A(n) ___ refers to the broader category of employment that has reduced in racial inequality since the 1980s, but a(n) ____ refers to the specific tasks a person performs in the workplace.
After the Revolutionary War, schools shifted their focus away from reading and writing biblical texts, and towards which two categories below?
Economics and Agriculture
People who are incarcerated are not counted in Census data, meaning disparities in employment and wages may be inaccurate given the missing data points.
According to Herring and Henderson (Wealth Inequality in Black and White: Cultural and Structural Sources of the Racial Wealth Gap), what are the three major contributing factors to the racial wealth gap?
Income, stock ownership, and business ownership
The historical ratio under which crack and cocaine had sentencing disparities was which of the following?
Black men without a criminal record are more likely to get callbacks than white men with a criminal record.
What was the name of the bias that officers sometimes have in their use of violent force or deadly tactics when it comes to interacting with people of color?
Merit-based programs are often critiqued because they claim to provide an objective assessment of worker quality and adequately assess the worker's worth in the workplace. However, research has shown that this approach is not helping to stop discrimination in assessment and it continues to be a problem. This is due to which of the following structures in the workplace?
White, Male Ideal Worker
A person who leaves another country is considered to have ________.
Unions, regardless of personal membership, are a protective and bargaining factor for workers of color that often increase their wages and quality of life.
Michelle Alexander, in her piece, discusses how the structure and employment of the new criminal justice system is best described as _______.
According to cross-national data on incarceration rates, what is the closest country to the United States in incarceration rates?
There are 5 classifications in the Employment Based Green Card. What category of workers are included in the EB4 classification?
______ refers to the lending practice that imposes unfair or abusive loan terms that specifically targets African American and Latinx individuals.
What is the name of the areas where people of color were told they had to leave town by a certain hour or else they would be subject to random acts of violence?
In class, we talked about how this form of capital allows white, middle-class students and their parents to construct opportunities for success within the classroom. This is called _______ capital
What is the proposed number of refugees that the United States plan to accept in 2019?
Which of the following type of college has recently been sued and found guilty of targeting low-income and racial minority students, and failing to provide them with adequate job opportunities?
An audit study uses what kind of item to assess racial inequality in hiring practices?
Cornelius (Impacts of Border Enforcement on Unauthorized Mexican Migration to the United States) posits expanding which of the following visas would best improve the United States' financial strength and health?
Undocumented immigrants can only be deported if they engage in some type of criminal activity.
The first Brown v. Board of Education was extremely successful in desegregating schools.
Research indicates neighborhoods with a high proportion of immigrant occupants experience increased crime rates.
What term is used to refer to the United States when there was focus on mass production and we used to make large amounts of goods in factories?
Newman and Ellis (There's No Shame in My Game) discuss how working a lower-wage jobs is culturally better than not being unemployed at all.
Since crime has fallen since the 1990s, so has incarceration rates.
What is the technical term for items that are socially and economically beneficial in the lives of younger generations?
What was the name of the settlement that deemed parents can be detained with their children in the United States?
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