Biology 3, 2018 (organelles, cell, cell cycle, transport, mitosis, feedback, diabetes, photosynthesis and cell respiration)
Terms in this set (42)
Structures (little organs) specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA in eukaryotes
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Site of protein synthesis in the cell
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and ATP energy production occur.
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy (glucose)
Basic unit of life
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
DNA is replicated in this phase of Cell Cycle
Division of the nucleus
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
Cell division (mitosis + cytokinesis)
The process in growth and repair by which a cell divides to form 2 identical daughter cells. Responsible for growth and repair of cells/organism
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
Phospholipid bilayer and membrane spanning proteins that surrounds all cells and regulates what enters and leaves the cell (semi-permeable)
Cell membrane transport
Collection of mechanisms that regulate the passage of solutes such as ions and small molecules through biological membranes
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference (low to high concentration)
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water
Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water
Feedback loops (positive and negative)
A system receives information through a feedback loop. A negative feedback loop helps to stabilize the system's equilibrium, reduces deviation and sustains its status quo, while a positive feedback loop amplifies deviation or change and thereby disrupts the system with either exponential growth or decline.
Negative feedback loop
A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring. (stabilizing)
Positive feedback loop
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
Examples of positive feedback
Blood clot formation (amplifies chemicals in the clot promote further clotting UNTIL it's sealed)
Milk production (as long as baby is nursing. milk will be produced UNTIL babies done)
Uterine contractions during childbirth (contraction UNTIL babies out/no more stimulus)
Examples of negative feedback
body temperature, blood pressure, glucose regulation
a cell that is not subject to normal cell cycle control mechanisms and that will therefore divide continuously
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Type of reproduction in which an organism that does not have a nucleus replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two daughter cells (example-bacteria)
a disease that prevents the body from converting food into energy. Patient cannot control blood sugar level without medications and diet changes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes in which no pancreatic beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival. It is classified as an autoimmune disease
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes in which the bodies cells are insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) occurs; the cell receptors do not interact with insulin
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells that increases blood glucose concentration by causing the breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreatic beta cells that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues
Damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nervous system, infection
Photosynthesis and Cell respiration
The two processes that are needed to convert the sun's light energy into glucose and then into ATP chemical energy which the cells use as their energy source.
Carbon dioxide, water, glucose, and oxygen
4 substances recycled during photosynthesis and cell respiration
The process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules into ATP
Process used for conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy (glucose)
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source in all living organisms that cells use for most of their work
Respiration that requires oxygen
Respiration that does not require oxygen
Consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.