U.S. History Chapter 18 Test: World War II
chapter 18 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (74)
What were the advantages of the Axis Powers?
1. secured firm control of the areas they had invaded
2. converted most of their economy to military production
What were the advantages of the Allied Powers?
1. Axis forces were spread over an enormous area
2. enormous size of Soviet Union's military
3. Production capacity of the United States
How did World War II end the Great Depression?
massive increase in production created an economic boom
What did farmers do during World War II?
left their farms to work in the factories
What was the War Production Board of 1942?
group of people that increased military production
How did the government raise money for World War II?
sold war bonds
What was the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940?
first peacetime draft in United States History
67% of soldiers who fought in World War II were drafted
What did Japan bomb on December 8, 1941?
Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines
After bombing the Philippines, what areas did Japan bomb over the next 2 weeks?
Burma, Borneo, Netherlands, East Indies, Wake Island, and Hong Kong
Who was in charge of the United States forces against Japan in the Pacific?
What did Roosevelt direct MacArthur to do at the Bataan Peninsula?
evacuate as it became clear that they would not be able to stop the Japanese advance
What did Japan do to the United States at the Bataan Peninsula?
Japan captured 7,000 troops forcing them to surrender.
What was the Bataan Death March?
prisoners marched to their prison camp where they were treated brutally
What did Japan attack in 1942?
How did the British Navy assist the Allies at New Guinea?
British Navy broke the code allowing the United States planes to destroy Japanese carriers and aircraft.
What was the first victory of the Allied Powers in the Pacific?
Battle of the Coral Sea
Why was the Allied victory at the Battle of the Coral Sea significant?
demonstrated to Japan that the Allied Powers could stop Japanese aggression.
What was the second naval victory by the Allies?
Battle of Midway
Why was the Allied victory at Midway significant?
Japan lost many ships, planes, and skilled pilots
What was the first offensive that the United States launched after its victory at Midway?
Battle of Guadacanal turning the tide of the war in the Allies favor.
How did the United States gain support for World War II?
1. displayed window banners
2. movie stars advertised war bonds
3. movie stars traveled overseas
4. radio and television gave on-the-scene accounts of the war
What did Americans do at home to support the war?
planted victory gardens to grow food
What did the United States authorities practice for the war?
nighttime blackouts and air raid drills
What types of books sold during World War II?
Why did the United States switch to paperback books?
method to cut costs of making books to save money for the war effort.
What role did women play during World War II?
women replaced departing soldiers in the factories.
How were African American soldiers treated during World War II?
served in segregated units and most were kept out of combat
Did war plants hire African Americans?
No, except as janitors
What did white workers do to keep black and Hispanic workers out of the factories?
staged hate strikes
What executive order did Roosevelt give that affected the war factories?
forbid racial discrimination in defense plants and government offices
What was the Fair Employment Practices Committee?
investigated companies to make sure all employees were considered for job openings regardless of race.
What was the effect of the Fair Employment Practices Committee?
lacked strong enforcement powers and was unable to prevent widespread abuses
How were Japanese Americans treated during World War II?
Americans of Japanese ancestry were moved to detention camps for the duration of the war.
What policy did the Allies adopt to ensure victory in the Pacific?
attack and seize one island at a time
What was the first Allied offensive in 1943 to start their island hopping campaign?
Why was the Allied victory at the Island of Tarawa significant?
gave the Allies control of a vital airstrip putting its forces in position to provide air support.
Who won the Battle of Marshall Islands?
What island did the Allies conquer in 1944?
Why was conquering Saipan devastating for Japan?
killed 2/3 of the Japanese fleet
What was significant of the Allied victory at Guam?
provided an airstrip from which U.S. bombers could begin launching missions against Japan
What was the largest and most decisive naval engagement in the Pacific?
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Japan lost many ships making them no longer a threat to the Allies
What was significant about the Allies defeating Japan at Iwo Jima?
1. 700 Japanese planes were destroyed
2. Mount Suribachi held the Japanese system of tunnels and bunkers
What was the bloodiest battle of the Pacific War?
Battle of Okinawa killing over 100,000 Japanese soldiers
How did Germany's surrender benefit the Allies in the Pacific?
allowed Allied Powers to concentrate their efforts on the war in the Pacific
What did President Truman demand on July 26, 1945?
Japan's unconditional surrender
What did President Truman do on August 6, 1945 when Japan refused to surrender?
dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Three days later, dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki
Was World War II the most destructive war the world had ever known?
What did Hitler do when the Great Britain and France inflicted damage on the Italians in North Africa?
Hitler sent General Rommel, his best general, to Africa in 1940
What was Germany able to do when they invaded the Soviet Union?
captured many industrial centers and grain fields in the Ukraine
What happened as the German troops continued to push towards Moscow in the winter?
Allied Powers trapped the Germans in Stalingrad forcing them to surrender
Why was the Allied Powers victory at Stalingrad significant?
broke the momentum of the Axis advance
What did the Allies do after Pearl Harbor?
opened a second front against the Axis Powers to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union
What did Germany do in 1940 with the French colonies after France surrendered?
placed the French colonies in North Africa
In 1943, the Allies planned Operation Torch. What was that military plan?
invasion of northwest Africa that would force the Axis Powers to surrender.
Where did the Allies invade in 1943?
Why did the Allies invade Sicily?
clear the Axis powers out of the Mediterranean, so the Allies could set up a base to invade Italy.
Who won the invasion of Italy in 1945?
Who won the Battle of the Atlantic in 1945?
What technology allowed the Allies to win the Battle of the Atlantic?
refined sonar equipment to detect underwater objects
In 1943, what was the purpose behind the Allies air campaign of strategic bombing?
1. destroy German military production
2. undermine the morale of the German people
What did the victory in the Battle of the Atlantic and air assaults on Germany set up for the Allies?
Operation Overlord (D-Day invasion)
Who commanded the D-Day invasion for the Allies at Normandy Beach?
What did the Allies do that confused Germany making the D-Day invasion successful?
sent dummy installations and false cues convincing the Germans that the invasion would occur near the English Channel.
Why did Hitler refuse to send reinforcements to Normandy Beach?
he was convinced that the invasion was happening elsewhere
Who won the D-Day Invasion?
What was the Final Solution in 1941?
Germany's construction of gas chambers in death camps for the purpose of deliberate annihilation of an entire race.
What steps were involved in killing the Jews in death camps?
1. Jews were transported to camps in sealed railroad cars
2. Jews were marched in shower facilities and gassed
3. Bodies were cremated
How many Jews were killed in the holocaust?
6 million Jews (2/3 of the Jewish population)
How did Nazi propaganda affect the Holocaust?
Anti-Semitic propaganda helped Germany gain support in Europe
What Battle happened in 1944?
Battle of the Bulge was Germany's final counterattack against the Allies in Belgium and northern France.
Who won the Battle of the Bulge?
What was discussed at the Yalta Conference in 1945?
plan for postwar peace
outlined plans for a new international peace organization
How did the urgency of the war help Roosevelt?
allowed Roosevelt to win a fourth term
What happened when the Allies invaded and occupied Berlin in 1945?
Hitler committed suicide
Germany surrendered unconditionally