200 terms

Mammalogy Final

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biogeography
studying animal distributions
Alfred Russel Wallace
-founder of animal geography
-co-discovered natural selection
historical biogeography
study of changes in species ranges that have taken place over evolutionary time
Two lines of biogeography inquiry
endemism
disjunct distributions
Endemism
restriction of a species geographic range to a circumscribed area
Disjunct distribution
a gap in the range of related species or clades
ecological biogeography
focuses on current distributions in terms of community-level interactions
Species richness
number of species within a defined area
biogeographical regionalization
the estimation of boundaries between areas of endemism
Six faunal regions
-nearctic
-neotropical
-ethiopian
-palearctic
-oriental
-australian
1876
date Wallace made faunal regions
Palearctic
-europe
-North africa
-middle east
-upper asia
Palearctic
-largest region
-diverse biomes
palearctic families
42 mammal families
-zero endemic
Nearctic
-north america
-greenland
nearctic families
37 mammal familes
2 endemic
holarctic
palearctic and nearctic
neotropical
-south america
-central america
-southern mexico
neotropical families
50 mammal families
19 endemic families
neotropical
region with the most endemic families
ethiopian
-sub-saharan africa
-southern middle east
-madagascar
ethiopian families
52 mammal families
18 endemic families
ethiopian
most mammal families of all regions
oriental
-india
-south china
-indonesia
oriental families
50 mammal familes
4 endemic
australian
-australia
-tasmania
-indonesia
australian families
28 mammal families
17 endemic families
wallace's line
imaginary line separating oriental and australian realms
-sharp difference in taxa
-borneo and sulawesi
oceanic
major oceans
oceanic families
-marine mammals
-bats
-some rodents
continental drift
theory postulating that pangea split
Abraham Ortelius
1596 found coasts with matching shapes
1915
wegner proposed theory that continents drift
1930's
Du Toit
-proposed modern view of theory with 1 historic land mass
traissic period
pangea
jurassic period
pangea split
laurasia
upper pangea
gondowana
lower pangea
end of cretaceous period
south america breaks from africa
cenozoic era
continued drift
mammalian diversity
driven by continental drift at opportune time
-isolated evolution
kansan glacial stage
500,000+ ybp
illinoian glacial stage
250,000 ybp
wisconsinaian glacial stage
10-12,000 ybp
extinct animals in north america
-elephants
-musk oxen
-camels
-sloths
-giant beavers
-cave bears
-saber-toots
-horses
north america plant colonies
-shifted with retreating glaciers
-mammals followed plants
mammals expanding northward
opossum and armadillo
passive dispersal
species play no active role in transport
active dispersal
species physically moves itself
corridor route
A faunal interchange where there is minimal resistance to the passage of animals between two geographic locations
filter route
A faunal interchange where only certain species move between land masses because of some type of barrier
sweepstakes route
A dispersal route in which some unusual occurrence carries an organism across a dispersal barrier into a previously unoccupied territory
dispersal influences
physical: barriers/climate
biological: size/activity/adaptations
extinction curve
gradients in species diversity
-peninsular
-latitudinal
-elevational
latitudinal gradient
species richness increases toward the equator
peninsular gradient
Number of mammal species declines on peninsulas as you go toward their terminal ends
Elevational gradient
species diversity is usually correlated with elevation
conservation methods
-preservation
-management
-regulation
-conservation
CITES
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
TRAFFIC
monitor and mitigates trade
IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Red List Classification
Extinct Categories
Threat Categories
Non-threat categories
Extinct categories
-extinct
-extinct in the wild
Threat categories
-critically endangered
-endangered
-vulnerable
Non-threat categories
-lower risk/conservation dependent
-near threatened
-data deficient
-least concern
Red List Criteria threat categories
1. population reduction
2. geographic range
3. small population size/decline
4. very small/restricted population
5. quantitative analysis (extinction risk)
population risks
-population size
-population trend
-geographic range
National organizations
-USFWS
-USDA-NRCS
-USFS
-the nature conservancy
-boone and crockett
-rocky mountain elk foundation
-safari club international
State organizations
-MDWFP
-BEaR
-MBWG
-Mississippi WIldlife Federation
highest percent risk to mammal class
marine (36%)
habitat loss
-fragmentation
-40% of species
harvest/hunting
-pangolin
-rinoceros
-17% of species
accidental mortality
dolphins (incidental harvest)
-78%
persecution
black-footed ferret (indirect mortality)
pollution
oil spills
-60%
disease
2% of species affected
species threats
-1/4 threatened
-1/2 declining
-habitat loss and overharvest (land)
-accidental harvest and pollution (marine)
SOlutions
-habitat protection
-law enforcement
-local values
-international agreements
-reintroductions
conservation concerns in MS
-Gray myotis (Myotis grisescens)
-Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)
-Florida panther (Puma concolor)
-West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus)
-American black bear (Ursus americanus)
-Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus)
E.O. Wilson
sociobiology
types of communication
-olfactory (deer, carnivores)
-auditory (bats, canids, elephants, whales)
-visual (white-tailed deer, lions)
-tactile (primates, star-nosed mole)
agonistic
of, like or pertaining to or being aggressive or argumentative
bruce effect
termination of pregnancy caused by the odor of a pheromone in the urine of a male other than the one that impregnated the female; first identified in mice
exploitation competition
organisms compete indirectly through the consumption of a limited resource
interference competition
individuals interact directly with one another by physical force or intimidation
core home range
...
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
coalition
a group of individuals with a common interest
-primates, dolphins
Eusociality
A complex social structure in which workers sacrifice most or all of their direct reproduction to help rear the queen's offspring. (naked mole rats)
group benefits
-protection
-foraging
-defense
-mates
-specialization
-learning
allee effect
individuals have a more difficult time surviving or reproducing if the population size is too small
grouping costs
-competition
-disease
-reproductive success
V.C. Wynne-Edwards
group selection
group selection
notion, largely discredited by the rise of Darwinian theory, proposing that animals act for the good of their social group or of their species
selfish herd
Temporary group that forms when individuals cluster to minimize their individual risk of predation
kin selection
the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
-inclusive fitness
anisogomy
variation in gamete size
-female are energetically expensive
darwinian fitness
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals
intersexual selection
Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex
intrasexual selection
A direct competition among individuals of one sex (usually the males in vertebrates) for mates of the opposite sex.
Monagomy
-1 male 1 female
-<9% of species
-helps offspring
-less time to find mate
Monagamy ecology
-scattered/dispersed resources
-low mate abundance
-reduced predation risk
Polygyny
male monopolizing females
-90% of mammals
-population definition (some males are forced into monogamy/celibacy)
-clumped resources
Polyandry
female monopolizing males
-very rare
-rodents, african wild dogs
resource defense polygyny
Polygynous males acquire several mates attracted to resources under their control.
Female defense polygyny
Polygynous males directly defend several females.
Male dominance polygyny
a reproductive system in which females select from aggregations of males; choice based on quality of male display
scramble competition polygyny
polygyny in which males acquire several widely scattered mates by finding them first
fundamental niche
The niche species could potentially occupy.
Realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
n-dimensional hypervolume
Analytical model that shows multiple dimensions to a species niche
realized niche graph
competitive exclusion principle
no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
trophic cascade
relationship b/t populations of predators & resources consumed by predators' prey
character displacement
Tendency of characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations than allopatric populations.
community structure
-location
-time
-space
-disturbance
exponential growth
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Logistic growth
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
growth curves
population growth basic equation
population growth open system equation
population growth closed system
population growth
instantaneous birth rate (b)
B = bN
instantaneous mortality rate (d)
D = dN
instantaneous rate of increase
r = b-d
(individuals per individual per unit of time)
increasing population trajectory
r > 0
constant population trajectory
r = 0
decreasing population trajectory
r < 0
exponential population growth
logistic population model (adds a k)
k=100, N=20, r=1, what is the growth rate?
.8
population parameters
-natality
-mortality
-sex ratio
-age structure
-immigration/emigration
natality
birth rate
-fecundity (number of live births)
-fertility (potential reproductive performance)
characteristics affecting birth rate
-age of sexual maturity
-gestation length
-sex ratio
-mating system
-age specific fecundity
-nutritional condition
sex ratios
primary-at fert
secondary-at birth
tertiary-juveniles
quaternary-adults
primary sex ratio
fertilization
secondary sex ratio
at birth/hatch
tertiary sex ratio
juveniles
quaternary sex ratio
adults
John Wiens 2001
dispersal definition
-individual here will later be there
Philopatry
the tendency of some organisms to remain in the same area throughout their lives
Proximate dispersal causes
-parental/conspecific aggression
-habitat quality
-interspecific density
Ultimate dispersal causes
-inbreeding avoidance
-competition for mates
-competition for resources
Males disperse more
-mate defense and competition for mates
-philopatric females benefit
female dispersal
-resource competition
-polyandry
-decrease predation risk
-decrease inbreeding potential
habitat
where an organism lives
habitat use
the process by which organisms use habitats from among the range of options they encounter
intraspecific competition
induces species to generalize
interspecific competition
induces species to specialize
patch selection
when prey are concentrated with significant travel time between them
optimal foraging theory
central place foraging
animal uses central base and forages around
risk affecting fitness
-predation
-competition
-human disturbance
habitat use
animals use landscape at multiple spatial scales
availability
not all landscape is available to animals
estimating dispersal/migration
-transmitters
-tags (ear, neck, etc.)
-harvest
-genetics
-pit tags
-hair snares
PIT tag
passive integrated transponder
endoparasites
live in organs and tissues
ectoparasites
live on the body
zoonoses
Diseases transmitted from animals to humans
enzootic
present endemically in certain populations
epizootic
relating to or denoting a disease that is temporarily prevalent and widespread in an animal population.
pathogen
An organism that causes disease
meningeal worm
parasite that infects moose accidentally (normally deer and snails)
Protistans
single celled organisms
African sleeping sickness
-protistan
-Trypanosoma brucei
-tsetse fly
-many reservoirs
-thousands of humans dead
Chagas disease
-protistan
-Typanosoma cruzi
-assassin bugs
-cats/dogs/rodents/etc.
-7 million people
Toxoplasmosis
-protistan
-Toxoplasma gondii
-ingestion
-many species
-11-95% of humans, stillbirths
Giardiasis
-protistan
-Giardia spp.
-ingestion/feces
-beavers/dogs/sheep
-2-33% of humans (diarrhea)
Malaria
-protistan
-Plasmodium spp.
-Anopheles mosquitoes
-rodents/birds
-primates, 445,000 deaths annually, 200m infected
schistosomosis, bilharzia
-Platyhelminth
-Trematoda class
-ingestion/snails
-snails and some mammals
-200m humans infected, 1m deaths, heart/brain/organ disease
tapeworm
-platyhelminth
-cestoidea, cestodes
-meat ingestion of eggs
-many mammals
-9-20m human infections
Trichinellosis
-nematode
-Trichinella
-meat infected
-no known reservoirs
-150-300k human infections annually
plague
-bacteria
-yersinia pestis
-fleas
-rats/ground squirrels/mice
-kills prairie dogs and ferrets, 150m human deaths in past
Lyme disease
-bacteria
-borrelia burgdorferi
-deer ticks
-rodents and deer
-10's of thousands infected each year
Rocky mountain spotted fever
-bacteria
-Rickettsia rickettsia
-dog ticks
-rodents/carnivores/deer
-2,000 annual infections
Tularemia
-bacteria
-Francisella tularensis
-lone star, dog tick, biting flies
-lagomorphs and rodents
-population crashes in animals but easily treated in humans
Distemper
-viral
-Morbillivirus
-inhalation/ingestion of saliva
-dogs
-high mortality in infected carnivores
Rabies
-viral
-Lyssavirus
-saliva/bites
-foxes/raccoons/bats/dogs
-70k human deaths a year
Epizootic hemorragic disease
-viral
-Orbivirus
-biting midge
-deer
-high mortality in deer
bluetongue
-viral
-Orbivirus
-midge
-deer
-high mortality in deer
Hantavirus
-viral
-Hantavirus
-saliva/feces/bites/inhalation
-rodents
-35% mortality in humans
ebola
-viral
-Filoviridae, ebolavirus
-respiratory droplets/contact
-megachiroptera/primates
-humans and other primates 50-90% mortality
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
-prion
-ingestion of saliva/fluids
-no known reservoirs
-bovids/cattle
chronic wasting disease
-prion
-saliva/fluids
-no known reservoirs
-cervids
Grinnell
a species' distribution is controlled by its tolerance of environmental conditions
Elton
wrote first animal ecology textbook
Hutchinson
niche
Gause
competitive exclusion principle
Community succession
normal pattern of inhabiting a landscape
John Maynard Smith
game theory
sneaky breeders
mating strategy
marginal value theorem
A conceptual optimal foraging model proposing that an animal should stay in a food patch until the rate of energy gain in that patch has declined to the average rate for the habitat, then depart for another patch.
giving up density
the density of food items left in a food patch after being exploited by a forager
inclusive fitness
The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.
definitive host
an organism that harbors the adult, sexually mature form of a parasite
etiological
the study of causation, or origination
recolonization
re-establishment of a local population by new immigrants