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Political Science 3 Final
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Gravity
Terms in this set (17)
4 Causal Hurdles
1. Is there a credible causal mechanism that connects X to Y?
2. Reverse Causation?
3. Covariation?
4. Random Chance?
median voter theorem
parties in a two-party system can maximize their vote by locating themselves at the position of the median voter—the voter whose preferences are exactly in the middle.
components of a good theory
general, parsimonious, falsifiable
Expected Utility
sum of the utilities associated with all possible outcomes, weighted by the probability that each outcome will occur
variance
how many points are far from the center (standard deviation squared)
standard deviation
a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
Central Limit Theorem
The theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution.
null hypothesis
The dependent variable has no affect on the independent variable
t-statistic
indicates the distance of a sample mean from a population mean in terms of the estimated standard error
confidence interval
the range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie
p-value
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
regression coefficient
the slope of the regression line. How a 1 unit change in x affects y.
interaction term
An independent variable in a regression model that is the product of two explanatory variables.
randomly sampling
gives a representative sample. good representation of true population
randomly assigning
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups. reduces selection bias and helps in experiments
causal effect
the finding that change in one variable leads to change in another variable
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