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regulate sodium and potassium balance (excrete potassium in exchange for sodium retention)

Adrenal glands

secrete aldosterone, which influences sodium and potassium balance in the kidneys.

Hypothalamus and posterior pituitary

produce and secrete antidiuretic hormone causing water retention, which affects solute concentration

thyroid gland

secrets calcitonin, which prevents calcium release from the bone

parathyroid glands

secrete parathyroid hormone, which draws calcium into the blood and helps move phosphorous to the kidneys for excretion

Sweat gland

Excrete sodium, potassium, chloride, and water in sweat

lungs and livers

regulate sodium and water balance and blood pressure


secretes ANP, causing sodium excretion

GI tract

Absorbs and excretes fluids and electrolytes

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