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Causes of hyperkalemia
1. Excess potassium intake
2. Shift of potassium out of cells
3. Failure to eliminate potassium
Causes of shift of potassium out of cells
Tissue catabolism (e.g., fever, sepsis, burns)
Tumor lysis syndrome
Failure to Eliminate Potassium - causes
ACE inhibitors (This group of drugs causes dilation of blood vessels, which results in lower blood pressure.)
Manifestation of hyperkalemia
Abdominal cramping, diarrhea
Weakness of lower extremities
Cardiac arrest if hyperkalemia sudden or severe
GI losses: diarrhea, vomiting, fistulas, NG suction
Renal losses: diuretics, hyperaldosteronism, magnesium depletion
Skin losses: diaphoresis
Shift of Potassium Into Cells
Increased insulin (e.g., IV dextrose load)
Lack of Potassium Intake
Diet low in potassium
Failure to include potassium in parenteral fluids if NPO
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