How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

9 terms

POTASSIUM IMBALANCES: CAUSES AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

STUDY
PLAY
Causes of hyperkalemia
1. Excess potassium intake
2. Shift of potassium out of cells
3. Failure to eliminate potassium
Causes of shift of potassium out of cells
Acidosis
Tissue catabolism (e.g., fever, sepsis, burns)
Crush injury
Tumor lysis syndrome
Failure to Eliminate Potassium - causes
Renal disease
Potassium-sparing diuretics
Adrenal insufficiency
ACE inhibitors (This group of drugs causes dilation of blood vessels, which results in lower blood pressure.)
Manifestation of hyperkalemia
Irritability
Anxiety
Abdominal cramping, diarrhea
Weakness of lower extremities
Paresthesias
Irregular pulse
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular standstill
Cardiac arrest if hyperkalemia sudden or severe
Hypokalemia causes
1. potassium loss
2. Shift of potassium into cells
3. Lack of potassium intake
Potassium loss
GI losses: diarrhea, vomiting, fistulas, NG suction
Renal losses: diuretics, hyperaldosteronism, magnesium depletion
Skin losses: diaphoresis
Dialysis
Shift of Potassium Into Cells
Increased insulin (e.g., IV dextrose load)
Alkalosis
Tissue repair
↑ Epinephrine
Lack of Potassium Intake
Starvation
Diet low in potassium
Failure to include potassium in parenteral fluids if NPO
Manifestations of hypokalemia
Fatigue
Muscle weakness, leg cramps
Nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus
Soft, flabby muscles
PARESTHESIAS, decreased reflexes
Weak, irregular pulse
Polyuria
Hyperglycemia
Ventricular dysrhythmias (e.g., PVCs)
Bradycardia

Enhanced digitalis effect