psych final review questions
Terms in this set (334)
psychology is defined as the discipline concerned with...
behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, and external environment
Real psychology differs from popular psychology and its pseudoscientific relatives in that it is based on ...
empirical findings are those that...
rely on observation, experimentation, or measurement.
the formal discipline of psychology, as we know it today, began...
in the 1800s.
___________ founded the field of psychoanalysis
A(n) ___________ psychologist studies how genetically-influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our species' past may be reflected in present behaviors, mental processes, and traits of modern humans
a major point of difference between basic research and applied research it that...
basic research is done to acquire knowledge and applied research is done to solve practical problems.
which of the following is one of the critical-thinking guidelines described in the book
define your terms
In the scientific use of the term, a "theory" is...
an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a set of observations and how they are related.
researchers prefer to select participants who accurately represent the larger population that the researchers are interested in. this type of group is called a...
Dr. Stoey wants to know whether or not the first three years of life are critical for aquiring language. She decides to study a child who was tragically deprived of human language by their parents. This type of study is called a(n)....
To test wether people in bars drink more when they are in groups than when they are alone, researchers visited all the pubs in the city. They ordered beers and recorded observations on napkins and pieces of newspaper. Why did they keep their identities a disguise?
They wanted the people they were observing to behave naturally.
which of the following correlation coefficient values indicate the strongest relationship between two variables?
A controlled test of a hypothesis, in which the researcher manipulates one variable in order to discover its effect on another variable, is called a(n)
A researcher wants to know whether eating chocolate makes people nervous. Some participants are given three bars of chocolate to eat and some are given no chocolate at all, and then all of the participants are tested for nervousness an hour later. In this experiment, the amount of chocolate eaten
would be an independent variable.
The participants for an experiment are randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Although the researchers know which group each participant has been assigned to, the participants do not know if they are in the experimental or control group. Which type of study is this an example of?
The central nervous system consists of the
brain and the spinal cord.
Charlie touches a hot stove and immediately pulls his hand away. His quick response occurs because
spinal reflexes are automatic, requiring no conscious effort.
What is true about the nervous system?
The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
While Breanna is walking on the road, a bicyclist swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm's way. Soon, Breanna's heart rate begins to decrease. This calming reaction is due to the action of Breanna's
parasympathetic nervous system.
A cell that conducts electrochemical signals and is the basic unit of the nervous system is called a
The part of neurons that receive messages from nerve cells and look like the branches of a tree are called
Many axons, especially the larger ones, are insulated by a surrounding layer of fatty material called the _______________.
The site where the transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs is called a _______________.
The neural impulse that travels down an axon is ____________ in nature.a.electrical
Which of the following is a chemical messenger?
Most recreational drugs produce their effects by
blocking or enhancing the actions of neurotransmitters.
Chemical substances secreted by glands, that affect the functioning of bodily organs, are called
_______________ is an approach used only with animals to study the brain.
The lesion method
Which of the following structures is part of the brain stem?
A ballerina will rely primarily on which brain area that is involved in regulating balance?
The reason why particular odors, such as the smell of gardenias, often rekindle memories of important personal experiences might be because
the olfactory bulb is directly connected to areas involved in emotion.
The _______________ is the structure in the brain involved in basic survival drives including feeding, fighting, fleeing, and sex.
The _______________ is often called the body's "master gland" because the hormones it secretes affect many other endocrine glands.
Carmen had a stroke that caused damage to her brain. As a result, she can longer form new memories about people she meets or information she learns. Which part of Carmen's brain is most likely damaged?
Generally speaking, the _______________ hemisphere in the brain is in charge of the left side of the body.
Damage to the occipital lobes may result in difficulty with
Which of the following regions in the brain contains the auditory cortex?
Which of the following regions in the brain is involved in the ability to make plans, think creatively, and take initiative?
Patients with _______________ hemisphere damage in the brain may have difficulty identifying faces, interpreting emotional expressions in a face or voice, or understanding music or art.
The brain's ability to change and adapt in response to experience, through neurogenesis, or by reorganizing or growing new neural connections, is calleda.constructivism.
What is the difference between sensation and perception?
Sensation is the detection of sensory stimuli and perception is the interpretation of sensory information.
Receptors that account for our sense of balance are found in the
Sam is seated in a dark room and asked to look at a screen. He watches as flashes of light, varying in brightness, are shown on the screen one at a time. Whenever he notices a flash, he informs the researchers. What are the researchers measuring?
Sam's absolute threshold for brightness
When she goes into her mother's kitchen, Jessica doesn't know how long she will be able to stay in the room because of the overpowering smell of onions. But when her sister comes home an hour later and complains about the smell, Jessica realizes that she no longer smells the onions at all. This is an example of
The ability to focus on some parts of the environment and block out others is referred to as
The wavelength of light is related to our perception of
One difference between rods and cones is that
rods are more sensitive to light than cones.
_______________ psychologists studied how people organize the world visually into meaningful units and patterns.
When you look at the drawing below, your brain fills in the gaps so that you perceive a complete form—in this case, a square. This occurs due to the principle of _______________.
Ken watches as his wife Janet walks toward the house. Even though the retinal image of Janet grows larger as she approaches, she does not appear to be growing larger as she moves closer and closer to Ken. This scenario illustrates
_______________ is what makes a note played on a flute, which produces relatively pure tones, sound different from the same note played on an oboe, which produces very complex sounds.
The snail-shaped, fluid-filled organ in the inner ear is called the
Joe is walking home alone on a dark night. He hears a stick breaking and immediately turns to his right to see what made the noise. What cue did Joe most likely use to tell which direction the sound came from?
he slight time difference between when the sound reached each ear
Of the smells that humans detect
no smell seems to be more basic than any other.
When we vigorously rub a banged elbow, we are applying the principle of
Isaiah lost a leg in Afghanistan after an improvised bomb exploded near him. Years later, he still has times when he feels intense pain that he perceives as coming from his missing leg. It is obvious that Isaiah
is experiencing phantom pain.
Which two senses keep us informed about the movement of our own body?
equilibrium and kinesthesis
According to your instructor, there is no such thing as ______ teaching.
Which of the following is NOT true about the link between music and brain structure/function?
When people listen to music, they mostly activate the temporal and parietal lobe.
Research has shown that learning _______ results in the same "brain benefits" as learning to play a musical instrument.
none of these ->to ride a surfboard, how to tap dance, acrylic and watercolor painting
In class, we watched a video that discussed Entoptic Phenomenon. What is an example of this phenomenon?
if you hit the back of your head, you may "see stars" due to the brain misinterpreting signals in the Occipital lobe.
The ganglion cells connected to your rods and cones can fire based on
light, pressure and lack of stimulation.
One of the problems with neuroscience research on sex differences in the brain is
All of the above are true-> researchers cannot account for ways that experience and culture have contributed to brain differences due to plasticity, researchers have often failed to correct or account for size differences that exist in males and females to begin with, researchers have too often used male brains when conducting studies in rats and other animals.
Stuttering is associated with language production, a function typically controlled by the left side of the brain. Which of the following is true?
If someone who stutters sings, the stutter is often gone given this is a "right brain" function.
One metaphor that helps us understand the function of the thalamus is
to think of it like a router taking in sensory information and then sending on to the different lobes of the brain.
Which of the following statements is true, based on current research?
Male and female brains generally display a mosaic of both typically "male-ish" and "female-ish" characteristics.
Which of the following provides the best definition of consciousness?
awareness of ourselves and the environment
When scientists use the term "biological rhythm," they are referring to
a periodic, more or less regular, fluctuation in the physiological functioning of a living organism.
Circadian rhythms are controlled by a biological clock, located in a tiny cluster of cells in the
Melatonin treatments have been useful in the treatment of
disturbed sleep-wake cycles in blind people who lack light perception.
The experience of "jet lag" is the result of a phenomenon called
Belinda says she is suffering from several symptoms and claims they are due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Which of the following symptoms that she cites is the most questionably linked to the menstrual cycle?
irritability and depression
During the night, which two types of sleep alternate with each other in cycles?
REM and NREM sleep
REM sleep has been called "paradoxical sleep" because
the brain is very active, yet the body is entirely inactive.
_______________ is a sleep disorder involving sudden and unpredictable daytime sleepiness or attacks of the paralysis commonly associated with REM sleep.
Kyndal and Teresa spent the same amount of time studying for a big exam. Kyndal slept between studying and taking the exam, whereas Teresa did not. All other things being equal, which of the following is most likely to be true?
Kyndal has an advantage, because sleeping after learning is believed to strengthen the memories.
People are aware that they are dreaming and feel as though they are conscious during
The theory that currently seems to be the leading contender in explaining dreaming is the
cognitive approach to dreaming.
Which of the following statements about hypnosis is true?
Hypnosis has been used successfully in anesthetizing women during childbirth.
When alcohol is abused, the resulting effects may include
blackouts, cirrhosis of the liver, mental and neurological impairment, psychosis, and possibly death.
drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system.
Which of the following drugs is an opiate?
Which of the following is an effect of depressants?
reduced anxiety, guilt, and tension
Most psychoactive drugs produce their effects primarily by acting on
Physical and psychological symptoms that occur when someone addicted to a drug stops taking it are collectively termed as
"Mental set" refers to
a person's expectations about a drug's effects.
Which of the following statements is true of the behaviorist perspective?
It explains behavior in terms of observable acts and events, without reference to mental entities such as the "mind."
When a response occurs to a previously neutral stimulus, it is called
a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, ________ occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
________ founded American behaviorism and recognized the real-life implications of classical conditioning.
John B. Watson
In Watson and Rayner's "Little Albert" study, each time the rat was presented to the boy it was accompanied by a loud noise. In this experiment, Albert's reaction of fear upon hearing the loud noise was the
The process by which a stimulus strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows is called
Kayla wants to make sure that her dog Max does not beg for food from the table. Every time that Max begs, Kayla says, "No," in a sharp, scolding voice and she never gives in. Kayla is using
In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another similar stimulus that differs from it on some dimension is called
Intermittent reinforcement results in
________ is an operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced.
Extrinsic reinforcers are defined as reinforcers that
are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
What is learning that has taken place but is not demonstrated called?
After watching her father slide through pictures on his smartphone using his index finger, Lucy, a 5-year-old, learns to use her finger to slide the screen on his smartphone. Lucy acquired this behavior through
________ refers to the ability to retrieve and reproduce from previously encountered material.
Callie was visiting a friend in New York City on September 11, 2001, the day of the attack on the World Trade Center. To her, that day seems frozen in time. She remembers exactly where she was, what she was doing, and what she felt as the morning transpired. This vivid recollection is known as
a flashbulb memory.
Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened, is called
Dr. Barnes wants to design a test that will assess her students' abilityto recall the information she presented in class. Which test is she most likely to use?
Which of the following ways of measuring explicit memory areusually the easiest for the person being tested?
Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughtsand actions, is called
What are the components of the information-processing model, in order of occurrence?
encoding, storage, retrieval
Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?
One objection to the three-box model of memory is that
the brain performs many independent operations simultaneously.
The ________ model represents the contents of memory as connections among a huge number of interacting processing units.
parallel distributed processing
The case study of Henry Molaison (H.M.) is discussed throughout Chapter 6 in your textbook. Careful study of H.M.'s memory after his surgery revealed that
H.M.'s memory problems were primarily the result of an unusually small STM capacity.
Terrence convinces a woman he finds attractive to give him her telephone number. Unfortunately, the number is ten digits long with the area code, and Terrence cannot find a place to write it down. As he looks for a pen and paper, what can Terrence do to help himself remember the number?
"Chunking" the numbers into smaller units will help Terrence.
________ holds and operates on information that has been retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use.
Declarative memories include ________ memories and ________ memories.
Memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts and propositions, are called
Margie is introduced to the following people when she arrives at the party: Derek, Kayla, Calvin, Debbie, Rose, Melanie, Garrett, Tom, Francis, Jane, John, and Vincent. According to the serial-position effect, it will be most difficult to remember the names of
Rose, Melanie, Garrett, and Tom.
The ________ is the part of the brain that is involved with the formation and consolidation of memories associated with fearand other emotions.
Moderate amounts of hormones released by the adrenal glands during stress and emotional arousal tend to
In order to help her music students learn the lines of the treble clef in musical notation, Star has them learn the sentence "Every Good Boy Does Fine," in which the starting letter of each word represents the name of a note. This is an example of
________ involves associating new items of information with material that has already been stored.
The ________ theory of forgetting proposes that memory fades with time and lack of use.
Mr. Moss is the head coach of the high school football team. He notices that, after learning the names of the players on the team this year, he has trouble remembering the names of the players from the previous year. In fact, he sometimes says the name of a current player when he is referring to a player from the previous year. This is an example of
If you are afraid or angry at the time of an event, you may remember that event best when you are once again in the same emotional state. This phenomenon is called
Given the current research on recovered memories, one should be skeptical if a person says that
she now has memories of her experiences as an infant, thanks to therapy.
Contemporary memory researchers would be most likely to agree that childhood amnesia
occurs because the prefrontal cortex and other key brain structures aren't developed yet.
Most philosophers and cognitive scientists agree that
consciousness originates in the brain
Scientists have discovered some of the neural correlates of consciousness through
electrical stimulation of a patient's brain that caused loss of consciousness.
Researchers define the "theory of mind" as the ability to
get inside another's mind and see the world from the other's perspective.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding consciousness?
Researchers and philosophers agree that the "hard problem" of understanding consciousness will likely never be solved.
The majority of states now have laws that allow for distribution of ___________.
According to the video we watched on what is known about sleep, which of the following is NOT true?
Early humans had significantly better or more restful sleep than modern humans.
Researchers have discovered that blue light, such as that emitted by our cell phones and other devices, has a strong effect on the production of _______, which is a _______ hormone.
Facebook and other technology companies take advantage of vulnerable aspects of our minds when they
All of the these are true->systematically display new photos longer for our "friends" to "like" given our need for approval, capitalize on hardware improvements like the scroll buttons that allow us to more easily get rewarded by new posts, likes, etc., use a variable schedule reward cycle that rewards us much like a slot machine rewards a gambler.
Which of the following claims about video games is TRUE?
Playing video games can improve your ability to solve figure rotation problems.
According to Elizabeth Loftus, as many as ____ of convictions of those who later are found innocent by virtue of DNA evidence are due to faulty memories of eye witnesses.
Research by Elizabeth Loftus andcolleagues showed that military subjects undergoing stressful interrogations can be convinced to ________ if researchers feed them post-event information.
identify an interrogator who looks nothing like the one who actually questioned them
According to the video we watched, researchers interested in childhood amnesia were able to show that adult mice whose ______ produced ______ neurons were more forgetful and concluded that this area of the brain and the rate of growth may contribute to this phenomenon in humans.
A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties is called a(n)
Most people take longer to identify a platypus as a mammal than to identify a cat as a mammal. This is likely because a cat is closer to most people's _______________ for the concept of mammal.
Phil's mental representation of Thanksgiving includes associations about turkeys, attitudes toward the holiday, and expectations about the weight he would gain! These are all part of his ________ for the holiday.
When Maxwell was learning to drive, he couldn't imagine how he could ever remember to steer the wheel, flip on the turn signal, step on the accelerator, and still manage to turn the car! After driving for three years, Maxwell's reactions have become automatic. Now, when he drives a car
subconscious processes are involved.
Cassie's grandmother says that if Cassie follows the family's traditional recipe for Irish soda bread exactly, then she is sure to have very good results. Cassie's grandmother is encouraging her granddaughter to
use an algorithm.
Which of the following is a characteristic of formal reasoning?
There is typically one correct answer.
Which of the following statements is generally true for people capable of reflective judgment?
They are willing to consider evidence from a variety of sources and to reason dialectically.
When using the availability heuristic, people tend to judge the probability of an event based on
how easy it is to think of examples or instances
When Maggie's father passed away, the will stated that Maggie and her brother should decide how to split the estate between them. After weeks of fighting over how to divide the inheritance, Maggie tells her brother, "I would rather both of us get nothing, than for you to get more than is right!" This somewhat irrational position is likely the result of
the fairness bias.
Reginald is a Green Party supporter. He goes out of his way to read articles about the achievements of the Green Party, but doesn't pay any attention to articles that are critical of the party and its candidates. Reginald is exhibiting
________ is defined as a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents.
The g factor
As a woman, Dana is aware of the stereotypes that women are not good at math. When she completes a questionnaire about her gender and then is given a math test, it is most likely that
the questionnaire will increase stereotype threat, and increase the risk that she will underperform on the math test.
According to the triarchic theory of intelligence, ________ intelligence refers to transferring skills to new situations.
________ intelligence is the ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others.
For many decades, the study of motivation was dominated by a focus on ________, although this did not account for the full complexity of human motivation.
Which of the following is an example of an extrinsically motivated behavior?
working to earn a paycheck
________ is the genetically influenced weight range of an individual, maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves, and metabolism.
________ fat is an energy-burning type of fat that appears to be important in regulating body weight.
The hormone _________ makes you hungry and eager to eat more.
________ is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.
Some people have suggested that oxytocin could act as a "love potion" or "liquid trust." Which of the following is a reason given in the textbook why this is an oversimplification?
Giving people doses of oxytocin makes them more likely to favor their own group over other groups, and increases defensive aggression against outsiders.
According to the attachment theory of love, anxious lovers worry that
their partner will leave them.
Masters and Johnson concluded that, when it came to orgasms
male and female orgasms are remarkably similar.
Which of the following is one of the reasons for rape given in the text?
narcissism and hostility toward women
Which of the following statements is true of homosexuality?
Homosexual behavior has been documented in over 450 species.
________ are goals framed in terms of positive experiences that you seek directly.
What feedback should you give a child after they solve a puzzle correctly, if you do not want them to give-up when they encounter a more difficult puzzle later on?
"You must have worked really hard to solve that!"
Katerina has the conviction that she can do what she sets out to do, whether it is mastering a new skill or reaching her goal of becoming a U.S. citizen. Psychologists call this feeling of competence
Which of the following examples contradicts the central idea behind Abraham Maslow's "pyramid" of needs?
a person willing to put himself in danger in order to fight for social justice
_______________ is a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.
According to Paul Ekman, which of the following is one of the universal facial expressions?
Facial feedback is defined as
the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.
The ________ quickly assesses danger or threat.
What property of some brain cells led scientists to call them mirror neurons?
They fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action.
The polygraph is based on the assumption that a person who is guilty and fearful will have
increased activity in the autonomic nervous system.
The influence of thought on emotion was studied by assessing athletes' reactions to being among the medal winners in the 1992 Olympics. The results showed that
third-place winners were happier than second-place winners.
What has research shown about the stereotype that women are "more emotional" than men?
The gender difference is more about how emotions are expressed than how they are felt.
A person is in the ________ of the general adaptation syndrome when the muscles tense, blood pressure rises, and digestion shuts down.
Which of the following is one of the key stress hormones released by the adrenal glands?
As Miranda looks at the grade scored in her final exams, she thinks, "I did well on this exam, because my roommate helped me study." Miranda's thoughts suggest that she has
an external locus of control.
What is the key characteristic of the Type A personality that is related to heart disease?
In one study of 16 couples, the wives had to lie in an MRI machine, periodically receiving a mild but stressful electric shock on their ankles. During the procedure, some women received a touch on the hand from a stranger; others held hands with their husbands. What general principle can be drawn from the results of this study?
The touch of a loved one is more effective than that of a stranger in stressful situations.
in the video we watched, great apes, such as chimps, orangutans and bonobos, were studied using a/an __________ which showed they can actually __________.
"ape soap opera"; anticipate another's false beliefs
Which of the following is FALSE regarding facial recognition and artificial intelligence?
Facebook's facial recognition/AI technology, which is about 93% accurate, has now surpassed humans' abilities to recognize faces.
Results of the Sexual Knowledge Survey done in class showed that
Men and women scored, on average, about the same, getting about two thirds of all items correct.
Eating disorders are a category of illnesses described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) used by psychologists and psychiatrists.Which of the following is true of eating disorders compared with other diagnoses?
Those who suffer with eating disorders have a higher death rate.
According to the Pew Center's research on words that describe positive and negative traits for men and women, the word ________ was mostlyused as positive for men and negative for women, whereas the word _______ was used as a positive for women but mostly a negative for men.
Kelly McGonigal, a health psychologist whose Ted Talk we watched in class, explained that stress can actually
be your friend.
Same-sex intercourse andother sexual activity was decriminalized in most states following
a Supreme Court ruling in 2003 over a case originating from Texas.
Kelly McGonigal also told us that "stress makes you social".What evidence did she point to?
One of the hormones released during stress is oxytocin (the "cuddle hormone") which pushes us to seek out social support.
In the video we watched, Dr. James O'Keefe, a cardiologist, relayed a story about his son, Jimmy, who is gay. Dr. O'Keefe provided a variety of insights about his look at the research on homosexuality. Which of the following is NOT one of the insights he provided?
Measures of intellectual achievement show that homosexual children have lower IQs and thus, homosexuality results in fewer offspring of lower intelligence.
According to the research, which of the following sayings about human love and relationships is true?
Out of sight, out of mind.
Your friend has been studying for hours and is tired and bored and invites you to go bowling for a few hours. Which of the following theories of motivation might account best for this behavior?
The "optimal arousal" theory of motivation.
One of the key findings from the Minnesota Hunger Experiment, which measured the effects of starvation on a group of male volunteers, was
physical starvation causes withdrawal from social situations and depression.
We all have blind spots in our thinking and decision making. This was highlighted in a video showing two characters, one of which was "Drew" who _______, and "Gun" who _______.
thinks carefully and methodically; makes automatic decisions based on long term memory
The "bat and ball" math question we saw in the video, in which people guessed quickly that the ball cost 10 cents, suggests that we need to more deeply process information to get to the right answer more consistently.Another research showed that people make those types of errors less often when
the test they received had hard to read fonts.
Jimmy Kimmel's taste test on the streets of New York City, in which people were asked which cup of coffee was made with expensive, exotic beans or the "regular" beans, showed which of the following cognitive biases at work?
The confirmation bias
Unconscious biases can be blamed for all of the following, EXCEPT
The likelihood for strangers to select more "gender typed" toys compared to a baby's parents.
________ is the process by which children learn the rules and behavior expected of them by society.
After the implantation of the zygote in the uterine wall is complete, the ________ stage of prenatal development begins.
The newborn infant has a number of __________ such as sucking, grasping, and rooting, which aid in his or her survival.
Which aspect of attachment was demonstrated by Margaret and Harry Harlow using rhesus monkeys as research subjects?
Mary Ainsworth observed that securely attached infants
cry or protest if the mother leaves the room and welcome her back when she returns.
Anthony was raised in a substandard orphanage where he was given little attention. He wasn't adopted until he was 6 years old. Anthony is ________________ to become insecurely attached to his adoptive parents as compared to a child that did not experience the same level of abandonment and deprivation.
Researchers have found that "baby talk" by parents
helps babies learn the melody and the rhythm of their native language.
According to Jean Piaget, object permanence develops during the ________ stage.
________ is the understanding that the physical properties of objects, such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass, can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes.
________ is a system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of others work, and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings.
Theory of mind
The fundamental sense of being male or female, independent of whether a person conforms to the social rules of gender, is called
Behavioral and social-cognitive learning theorists generally believe that gender socialization begins
at the child's birth or soon after.
Adolescence refers to the period of development between
puberty and adulthood
Based on their research, some scientists would argue that
the brain is not fully mature until the early to mid-twenties, so adolescents should not be held fully responsible for violent acts that they commit before that time.
Which of the following statements best summarizes Erik Erikson's theory?
Eight inevitable crises must be resolved as one moves through life.
As healthy, older adults age, what generally happens to their intelligence?
Fluid intelligence declines but crystallized intelligence does not.
Explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions are both examples of
Who conducted the "obedience study" in which an authority figure commanded participants to violate their ethical standards?
Barry Smith is a police officer who is instructed by a superior officer to beat a suspect in order to obtain a confession. According to research conducted on obedience, Smith is more likely to disobey this order if
Smith sees another police officer refuse to continue beating the suspect.
In the Stanford prison study, male college students agreed to participate in a two-week experiment to discover what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and guards. The researchers found that
within a short time the prisoners became distressed and felt helpless, developing emotional symptoms and physical ailments.
______________ refers to the tendency to overestimate dispositional influences (and underestimate situational influences) when explaining another person's behavior.
The fundamental attribution error
Gage has a tendency to take credit for his good actions, but he attributes his mistakes to factors beyond his control. This is an example of
the self-serving bias.
According to the just-world hypothesis, people tend to believe that
bad people are punished and good people are rewarded.
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent is known as
Solomon Asch set up an experiment in which eight people were shown a 10-inch line, and they had to choose the line (from a group of three) that matched the original line in length. Through this experiment, Asch was studying
The members of Ced's fraternity think spending the entire activity fund for the cultural fest is reasonable. Ced does not think this is a good idea but he decides to keep quiet rather than offend his fraternity brothers and risk being ridiculed. This scenario illustrates a symptom of
Luke walks around his busy college campus between classes. He notices smoke coming from the side of the cafeteria, but assumes that someone inside already has called the fire department. What phenomenon does this example illustrate?
diffusion of responsibility
The Robbers Cave experiment showed that
interdependence in reaching mutual goals reduces us-them hostility.
A cultural cause of prejudice is that it
helps people bond to their own ethnic group.
The_______________ is a controversial method for measuring prejudice, which pairs positive and negative words with black or white faces and then measures the participant's reaction time.
Implicit Associations Test (IAT)
Based on the information about prejudice in your textbook, what is the most likely outcome of extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in the long run?
It will decrease anti-gay prejudice.
Mary believes that all Asian people excel at mathematics. Although that might be considered a complimentary view, it is also nonetheless __________.
_______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual.
The first psychodynamic theory of personality was developed by
During a job interview, Dr. Smith informs the search committee that she is a psychodynamic theorist. Given this information, the committee realizes that Dr. Smith most likely believes that
early childhood experiences are critical in shaping a person's adult personality.
In psychoanalysis, which component of personality is a "referee" between the needs of instinct and the demands of society?
In psychoanalysis, a _______________ is a strategy that denies or distorts reality, but protects us from conflict and anxiety.
Four-year-old Linda squeezes between her Mommy and Daddy as they sit together on the couch. She cuddles her Daddy but refuses to kiss her Mommy. Which Freudian concept does this scenario illustrate?
the Oedipus complex
According to Carl Jung, part of the legacy of human history is a
collective unconscious shared by all human beings containing universal memories, symbols, and images.
What does the empirical evidence show about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator's ability to predict a person's behavior on the job or in relationships?
the evidence does not support it.
Professor Bradley's personality course emphasizes the importance of Gordon Allport's contributions to the field of psychology. Professor Bradley would be most likely to agree that
most individuals have five to ten central traits that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations.
_______________ is a fundamental personality dimension that describes the extent to which people are outgoing or shy.
Extroversion versus introversion
Regarding the Big Five, most psychologists would probably agree with the statement that
they lie at the core of key personality variations among individuals throughout the world.
Innate physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways that are present in infancy are called
Estimates of the heritability of personality traits are typically about
Which of the following is true of an individualist culture?
the independence of the individual often takes precedence over the needs of the group.
Which of the following theories of personality would be most likely to emphasize the freedom of individuals to choose to act in particular ways?
Which contemporary specialty follows in the footsteps of humanism by focusing on the qualities that enable people to be optimistic and resilient in times of stress?
The Barnum effect occurs when
an individualized personality analysis is given, but it is written in such vague terms that it could apply to almost everyone.
The primary evidence for having a peak experience seems to be the feeling that you think you have had a peak experience. What conclusion does this faulty reasoning illustrate?
The basic tenets of humanism are difficult to define, operationalize, or measure.
Each of the following is TRUE about babies, except
Babies are born over active tear ducts, producing 25% more tears up through 3 months of age.
The "Marshmallow Test" was designed to assess a child's _________________ and is predictive of _____________________ .
ability to delay gratification; success as an adult
During adolescence, all of the following are happening in the brain EXCEPT
the amygdala increases by 25%, providing better emotional control
In a video, we learned about an experiment designed to understand the adolescent brain.In the study, participants were shown a picture with a set of shelves that have items on them. Some of the shelves were blocked from view of a "Director" that is on the other side of the shelves.Participants were asked to move items around based on what the Director could see.Researchers compared results of different age groups, ranging from pre-adolescent children to adults.Which of the following describe the main findings of the study?
Both adolescents and adults were equally good at the task when asked to apply a "rule" to know which items to move, whereas adolescents made many more errors than adults when the task required taking the perspective of another (the "Director").
In the video we watched in class, young adults were asked the question "what age do you consider to be old?".The younger people were asked to demonstrate how older people were do a variety of tasks (e.g.,jumping jacks, composing a text message, etc.).They were then introduced to some "old people" and both were asked to teach each other something.According to the ___________ , this kind of situation should reduce young people's stereotypes and prejudice against older people.
The phenomenon know as ________ is defined asa form of psychological manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory, perception, and sanity. Using persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lying, it attempts to destabilize the victim and delegitimize the victim's belief.
In Phil Zimbardo's prison experiment, each of the following occurred EXCEPT
All of the guards and prisoners were able to abandon their roles and quickly became friends following the experiment.
It was a good weekend!Your college football team won, big time.On the following Monday, you notice that many of your classmates are wearing clothes with your college logo on it. One likely explanation of this (and one we discussed in class) is
"BIRG'ing" or basking in reflected glory.
In the episode of "What Would You Do?" that we wanted in class, customers in a Portland, OR coffee shop were presented with a situation that was intended to highlight which social psychological phenomenon?
None of these are right.-> The fundamental attribution error, The implicit bias rule, The social distance theory
"God created only one race, the human race.And human beings created racism."This was said by ______, a guest on The Oprah Winfrey show, after demonstrating ________
Jane Elliott; the prejudicial impact of separating brown and blue-eyed people.
In her Ted Talk, Stella Young, suggested to the audience ALL of the following ideas EXCEPT
the "social theory of disability" explains why non-disabled people have a hard time being close to or getting to know people who have specific disabilities
When people take the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory multiple times, weeks apart, there is a good chance that their results or profile will change.This shows that the assessment has poor
When a mother contracts rubella early during the pregnancy, a common consequence to the embryo could be the development of physical abnormalities.
Maternal use of cigarettes during pregnancy causes damage to the placenta but not to the baby itself.
According to Jean Piaget, assimilation occurs when you fit new information into your present system of knowledge and beliefs.
Experience and culture do not influence cognitive development.
According to the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, today's teenagers are more liberal than their parents were at their age.
When people observe that a social norm has been violated, they are more likely to violate it themselves.
In variations of Stanley Milgram's study of obedience, people were more likely to disobey when the experimenter left the room.
Entrapment is a gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort.
Most people are overly pessimistic about their own abilities, competence, and other good qualities.
Simply exposing people repeatedly to a product can make them like that product more.
Groupthink occurred when NASA officials insulated themselves from the objections of dissenting engineers and made the fatal decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger.
A tourist selflessly dives into an icy river to rescue a drowning stranger. This scenario is an example of altruism.
The belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others is called the self-serving bias.
Benevolent sexism is harmless.
According to Freud, when the Oedipus complex is resolved by about age 5 or 6, the child's personality has been formed.
One of the difficulties of retrospective analysis as the foundation for theory development is the fact that it creates an illusion of causality between events.
The Big Five personality traits are fairly stable throughout a person's life.
According to your textbook, there appears to be little relation between what parents do in childrearing and the way children eventually turn out.
in collectivist cultures, group harmony takes precedence over the wishes of the individual.
The narrative approach suggests that an individual's personality is influenced by the stories that one creates to explain his/her life.
When people are said to be insane, this means that
a legal determination has been made that they are unaware of the consequences of their actions and are unable to control their behavior.
The text defines mental disorder as
behavior or emotional state that causes an individual suffering, is self-destructive, endangers others, or impairs a person's ability to function and work with others.
The primary purpose of the ________ is to aid in the diagnosis of mental disorders.
________ consist of ambiguous pictures, sentences, or stories that the test taker interprets or completes.
The assessment method that would have the most validity and reliability would be
the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory).
The chief characteristic of generalized anxiety disorder is
chronic uncontrollable anxiety or worry.
Markel has recurring bouts of trembling and shaking, dizziness, chest pain or discomfort, rapid heart rate, feelings of unreality, hot and cold flashes, and sweating. He feels that he is going crazy. Markel is showing the symptoms of
a panic attack.
Kellanie is fearful in situations where she must eat in public or write in the presence of others. She is worried that she might say or do something embarrassing. Kellanie is exhibiting the symptoms of
a social phobia.
In many people who continue to suffer for years from post traumatic stress disorder, the ________ is significantly smaller than in those people who recover from the trauma.
________ is a disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors.
Which of the following is an INCORRECT match?
compulsion—recurrent, persistent, unwished-for images and thoughts
________ is a disorder involving disturbances in emotion, loss of interest in one's usual activities, thoughts of hopelessness, fatigue, and loss of appetite.
The vulnerability-stress model describes
interactions between upsetting events and individual vulnerability that lead to a disorder.
In ________, episodes of both depression and mania occur.
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of mania?
________ involve impairments in personality that cause great distress to an individual or impair his or her ability to get along with others, and the presence of pathological traits such as excessive hostility or callousness.
Matt would bite and hit the other children in his preschool class, and by the time he turned ten, he started shoplifting and skipping school. His teenage years showed a pattern of cheating at school, stealing from a part-time job, selling drugs, and stealing cars. Matt's developmental history is an indication of
antisocial personality disorder.
Which of the following statements is a characteristic of psychopaths?
Psychopaths are fearless, unconcerned about being caught and punished for their misdeeds.
The two dominant approaches to understanding addiction and drug abuse are
the biological model and the learning model.
During the Prohibition years (1920-1933) in the United States
drinking rates decreased overall, but alcoholism increased among those who did drink.
Which of the following statements is true about drug addiction?
The environment in which the drug is being used influences its physiological effects.
Psychological scientists who are skeptical about multiple personality disorder provide several reasons for their stance. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
Thorough consideration of the symptoms reveals that MPD is actually psychogenic amnesia.
Which of the following is a psychotic disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, inappropriate behavior, and negative symptoms?
Which of the following would NOT be considered to be a symptom of schizophrenia?
a person using elaborate con tricks to lie, seduce, or manipulate others
Research on the genetic predisposition toward schizophrenia has indicated that
children with two schizophrenic parents have a 27 to 46 percent lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia, compared to a risk in the general population of about 1 percent.
Which of the following statements is true of schizophrenia with regard to adolescence?
The first full-blown episode of schizophrenia usually occurs during adolescence or early adulthood.
At this time, _________________ explanations and treatments for mental disorders are dominant.
Which of the following drugs is a first-generation neuroleptic drug?
In his first year of college, Rondell began to behave irrationally and hear voices that were not really there. A psychiatrist diagnosed him as having schizophrenia and prescribed a drug to reduce the psychosis Rondell was experiencing. The intended effect of the drug is likely to
block or reduce the sensitivity of dopamine receptors.
One of the troubling side effects associated with some antipsychotic drugs is
extreme weight gain.
In a recent study (mentioned in your textbook) regarding people with aggressive outbursts, the group that received ___________ improved the most.
In addition to depression, antidepressant drugs are also used in the treatment of
People suffering from bipolar disorder often are helped by taking ________, but they must be very careful with the dose they take, because too much can be toxic.
The tendency for journals to publish studies that have positive findings, rather than negative or ambiguous results, is called
Which treatment is LEAST likely to be used today?
Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation are primarily used to treat
A therapist is interested in interpreting the symbolic content of dreams and in having clients relate stories about their childhoods. This person is most likely to be a
Psychologists who practice behavioral therapy focus on the client's
current behavior and attitudes.
Which method of treating a client with a phobia of spiders would be the most intense, if not terrifying, for the client?
Josiah is transferred to an office located on the tenth floor of a building. The problem is that he fears heights so much that he never goes above the third floor in any building. His therapist teaches him to relax deeply while imagining himself looking out over a balcony. As therapy progresses, Josiah imagines himself on higher and higher floors. This technique is called
Virtual reality devices permit behavior therapists to conduct _______________ in their offices.
Cognitive models of therapy tend to focus on
changing unproductive ways of thinking.
The therapeutic approach developed by Albert Ellis, known as ________, is a form of cognitive therapy.
rational-emotive behavior therapy
Dr. Carter is a cognitive-behavioral therapist whose approach to helping clients has been greatly influenced by Buddhism. It is likely that his therapeutic approach is based on the concepts of
mindfulness and acceptance.
In general, humanist therapists believe that ________ is useful in treating psychological disorders.
unconditional positive regard
Which view is consistent with the family-systems perspective?
A person's behavior in a family is tied to the behavior of all the other family members.
Which of the following is generally more important than the specific technique a therapist uses in determining the success of psychotherapy?
the bond between the therapist and the client
Cognitive therapy's greatest success has been in the treatment of
Gale's treatment for bulimia and binge eating has been highly successful. It is most likely that her treatment involved a combination of
cognitive therapy and behavior therapy.
Therapeutic influence, and sometimes coercion, is believed to be responsible for the huge number of people diagnosed in the 1980s and 1990s with
multiple personality disorder.
One of the main differences between OCD and HD (hoarding disorder) is that
people with HD do not see a problem with their behavior -it is consistent with their self-concept, whereas those with OCD do see that their behavior is problematic and they do not like it.
Most people will very eagerly seek medical treatment when they think they have strep throat or need stitches. However, when it comes to seeking treatment for psychological disorders,
many do not seek treatment because of the societal stigma association with mental illnesses.
There are ten different personality disorders organized into three clusters by the DSM._______ is one in Cluster A, characterized by __________.
Paranoid personality disorder; delusions, irrational mistrust of others and
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and other Anxiety Disorders will occur in about _____ of the adult population at some point in their lives.
Everyday sensations that can produce powerful emotions and a stress response linked to a traumatic event are sometimes called _______.
Psychopaths are an extreme subset of those with ___________________ and are characterized by brain differences in the ____________________.
antisocial personality disorder; ventromedial prefrontal cortex
In the video we watched, Dr. Octavio Choi provided evidence that our "conscience" is located in a specific area of the brain that is related to _________.
empathy, creativity or imagination, and impulse control
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MCAT | Mometrix Comprehensive Guide
AP Psychology Module 11 Exam Review
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
peripheral vascular competency
Cardiac assessment competency
abdominal assessment competency
Respiratory assessment competency
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ivy Tech psych Exam 4 words
Psychology Ch. 15
PSY Final part 4