Most hormonal systems in the body are regulated through positive feedback systems.
By the time menarche occurs, a girl typically has been ovulating on a regular monthly basis for approximately 2 years.
Prior to puberty, the hypothalamus is very sensitive to estrogen such that very low levels of estrogen inhibit the production of GnRH.
Thelarche is controlled by estrogen and prolactin levels.
Cervical mucus is clear and slippery like raw egg whites late in the follicular phase when estrogen is high and progesterone is low.
Stern and McClintock's work on menstrual synchrony has shown that when cycling women are exposed to underarm secretions (pheromones) collected during the donor's late follicular phase (after menses but not yet ovulating), the recipients' ovulation (the LH surge) is delayed and their cycle is lengthened.
When diagnostic criteria are carefully defined and daily diaries are used to track symptoms over time, we find that between 50% and 60% of all women experience PMS.
The hormone produced in the greatest quantity by the ovarian follicle/Graafian follicle is progesterone.
Somastostatin inhibits the production of growth hormone.
Some brain regions related to affective or emotional states (such as the amygdala and striatum) respond differently to estrogen and progesterone in women with PMDD than they do in women without PMDD.
The perimenstruum is defined as:
the seven days before menses starts and up to the first three days of menses.
Prior to puberty:
LH and FSH levels are lower than they are after puberty
Releasing hormones are:
hormones produced by the hypothalamus which stimulate or inhibit the production and release of the tropic hormones by the anterior pituitary.
Which of the following correctly describes prolactin production and the role of prolactin in breastfeeding?
Prolactin must be produced and released by the anterior pituitary to stimulate milk production.
stimulates the growth of the ovarian follicles.
Body fat (adipose tissue) can make estrogen from:
According to Tanner's stages of pubertal development, which of the following is TRUE?
The adolescent growth spurt starts and peaks before menarche.
In her report "The falling age of puberty in U.S. girls: what we know, what we need to know," what does Steingraber conclude from research on the timing of menarche and puberty in the U.S. and around the world?
The average age of the onset of puberty in U.S. girls appears to have fallen faster than the age of menarche during the last half century. The onset of puberty and the occurrence of menarche are no longer as tightly coupled to each other as they were in the past.
According to Miller and Golden in their article, "An introduction to eating disorders: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis," which of the following are TRUE about eating disorders?
Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of all mental disorders. Signs of bulimia can be more difficult to detect than signs of anorexia.
To be diagnosed as having Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a woman must display at least one of a specific list of symptoms. Which of the following symptoms are on that list?
sudden mood swings feelings of hopelessness or depressed mood
Compared to "on-time" maturers, girls who go through puberty earlier than their peers tend to:
have poorer attitudes towards menstruation.
Which of the following relationships between estrogen and GnRH is correct for the adult, cycling woman?
Moderate estrogen inhibits GnRH production.
During the monthly cycle, estrogen levels:
increase as the corpus luteum develops and decrease as the corpus luteum dies.
Which of the following are required for the undifferentiated gonads to develop into functional ovaries?
the migration of the primordial germ cells to the undifferentiated gonads the presence of at least 2 functional X chromosomes
Which of the following correctly associates a hormone with its site of production?
FSH - anterior pituitary
inhibits prolactin production and release by the anterior pituitary.
levels increase sharply (surge) on the day of ovulation
can be converted into testosterone or estrone or estrial.
The hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system:
transports releasing hormones through the pituitary infindibulum or stalk to the anterior pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit the production and release of the tropic hormones.
increase as the corpus luteum develops.
According to the American Psychiatric Association article on "Feeding and eating disorders," which of the following statements about the categorization of eating disorders in the DSM5 are TRUE?
Binge eating disorder is included as its own category of disorder. The criteria for bulimia nervosa include binge eating and compensatory behaviors.
stimulates the production of estrogen by the ovarian follicle and by the corpus luteum.
Which of the following are released from the follicle at ovulation?
the ovum follicular fluid
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH):
stimulates the production and release of FSH and LH.
a time during puberty when pubic hair develops.
a condition in which cells that typically line the uterus are located outside the uterus such as on the walls of the oviducts or around the ovary.
According to the article, "A Review of Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome & Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder" by Rapkin, which of the following are evidence-based successful nonpharmacologic treatments of PMS and PMDD?
Peptide hormones are typically very large molecules that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Steroid hormones are fat soluble hormones.
The median eminence:
is the region at the base of the hypothalamus where releasing hormones enter the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system.
Which of the following is a tropic hormone that has its production and release controlled by more than one releasing hormone?
When GnRH levels are high, FSH levels can be low because:
GnRH stimulates FSH production and release but inhibin acts directly at the anterior pituitary to inhibit FSH production and release.
At the beginning of each monthly cycle:
several immature ova in each ovary begin the maturation process.
may result from intense athletic training or strict dieting. is typically associated with very low levels of FSH, LH and estrogen.
In their article, "Puberty Suppression in Gender Identity Disorder: The Amsterdam Experience," what do Kreukels and Cohen-Kettenis, conclude about the use of puberty suppressing GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in young adolescents with gender identity disorder?
Data indicate that it is appropriate to continue to use GnRHa to suppress puberty and the effects of treatment need to be further investigated and replicated in different research centers.
is released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary. inhibits or reduces the amount of water lost in urine.
Women who are diagnosed with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD):
have their symptoms reduced or eliminated when they are treated with drugs that suppress E/P production. may differ genetically from women without PMDD in a way that makes them respond differently to increases in E/P.
The mammary glands:
are similar in females and males prior to puberty.
Recent thinking and research supports the idea that
the balance between a woman's energy input and her energy output may be more significant than the level of her body fat in determining whether she develops amenorrhea.
Studies looking at the influence of race/ethnicity on the timing of puberty
show that socioeconomic limitations may act as stressors that influence the timing of menarche on their own or in interaction with race/ethnicity.
What are the 3 categories of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?
glucocorticoids mineralocorticoids sex steroids (sex hormones)
What Tropic Hormone stimulates the production and release of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
When asked to RECALL how their moods change across the monthly cycle, do women report that NEGATIVE moods and behaviors regularly occur at a given time during the cycle? If yes, when are such NEGATIVE moods and behaviors said to occur?
Yes Negative mood are said to occur in the pre/perimenstruum/around the time of menses.
In CONCURRENT STUDIES in which women are asked to track their moods in DAILY DIARIES, is there any time during the monthly cycle during which women report an increased incidence of NEGATIVE moods and behaviors? If yes, when do these NEGATIVE moods and behaviors occur?
When asked to RECALL how their moods change across the monthly cycle, do women report that POSITIVE moods and behaviors regularly occur at a given time during the cycle? If yes, when are such POSITIVE moods and behaviors said to occur?
In CONCURRENT STUDIES in which women are asked to track their moods in DAILY DIARIES, is there any time during the monthly cycle during which women report an increased incidence of POSITIVE moods and behaviors?If yes, when do these POSITIVE moods and behaviors occur?
Yes During the follicular phase/preovulatory phase or around ovulation/mid-cycle