Upgrade to remove ads
Principles Exam III Oxygenation Chapter 40 Terms
Covers Perry and Potter (2009 7th ed) Chapter 40 Oxygenation Terms
Terms in this set (86)
Blood high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen delivered to the right side of the heart and to the pulmonary circulation.
Blood high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide delivered from the lungs to the left side of the heart and tissues.
Pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation.
Pumps blood through the systemic circulation.
Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathy
Result in decreased pumping action and a decrease in the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles (stroke volume).
Blood chambers fill
Blood chambers empty
Frank-Starling (Starling's) Law
As the myocardium stretches, the strength of the subsequent contraction increases. (Does not apply to diseased heart because myocardium stretch is beyond heart's physiological limits)
First heart sound. During ventricular diastole, antrioventricular (mitral and tricuspid valves) open and blood flows from higher pressure atria into relaxed ventricles.
Second heart sound. During systole semilunar (aortic and pulmonic) valves open and blood flows from the ventricles to the aorta and pulmonary artery. The closure of the valves represents S2.
Coronary Openings that the right and left coronary arteries arise through
Most Abundant Blood Supply
Left coronary artery.
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute. Normal CO is 4 to 6 L/min in a health 150 pound adult at rest.
CO=Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)
More precise measure and takes into consideration tissue perfusion and the client's body surface area.
CI = CO (Cardiac Output)/BSA (Body Surface Area)
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction.
Amount of blood left in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (end diastolic volume).
Increased stretch=Increased contraction=Increased SV (Starling's Law)
Resistance to left ventricular ejection created by: blood vessels, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hypervolemia.
"Pacemaker of the heart" Impulses are initiated at the SA node at an intrinsic rate between 60 and 100 beats per minute.
Mediates impulses between the atria and ventricles and delays the impulse before transmitting it through the bunde of His and the ventricular Purkinje network. The intrinsic rate is normally between 40 and 60 bpm.
Reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system by monitoring the regularity and the path of the electrical impulse through the conduction system, but does not reflect the muscular work of the heart.
Electrical conduction through both atria. Atrial contraction follows the P wave.
Impulse travel time through the AV node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje Fibers.
Normal length is 0.12 to 0.20 seconds.
(Impulse longer than .20 seconds indicates a block in the impulse transmission in the AV node)
(Impulse less than .12 seconds indicates the initiation of the electrical impulse form a source other than the AV node.)
Duration of electrical impulses as they travel through the ventricles.
Duration is 0.06 to 0.12 seconds.
(Increase indicates delay in conduction time through the ventricles)
Ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
Normal interval is 0.12 to 0.42 seconds.
Process of moving gases into and out of the lungs.
Diaphragm and phrenic nerve
Moves blood to and from the alveolar capillary membranes for gas exchange.
Lungs and cardiovascular system
Active process stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta.
Passive process from elastic recoil
Exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and capillaries. Moves from greater concentration to lower concentration.
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Diffuses into red blood cells and is hydrated into carbonic acid.
Measures the volume of air entering or leaving the lungs.
Amount of air exhaled in a normal breath
Distrubances in conduction caused by electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node.
Impaired Valvular Function
Acquired or congenital disorder of a cardiac valve by stenosis or regurgitation
Altered Cardiac Output
Insufficient volume is ejected into the systemic and pulmonary circulation (Heart Failure)
Coronary artery flow to the myocardium insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands.
Rate: Adults 60-100bpm
Rhythm: Regular P-P and R-R
P Waves: Positive; look alike; one precedes each QRS
PR Interval: 0.12 to 0.20 and constant
QRS Duration: <0.10
Chaotic, irregular atrial activity
No identifiable P Waves
Loss of atrial kick, pooling of blood in atria -> Develpment of microemboli
Commonly occurs in aging adults
Compaints of fatigue, fluttering to chest, or shortness of breath
V-Tach (Venticular Tachycardia)
P's not contracting, P wave absent
QRS Complex wide and > 0.12 seconds
Irregular rhythmia 100-200bpm
Results in decreased CO
Leads to severe hypotension and loss of pulse of conciousness
V-Fib (Ventricular Fibrillation)
Uncoordinated electrical activity- no PQRS or T wave
Acute loss of pulse and respiration
Causes include sudden cardiac death, electrical shock, acute illness, drowning, or trauma
Develops when the heart's muscles become weakened. (NOT A HEART ATTACK which usually results from blockage in the blood vessels that cut off the supply of blood to the heart) as a result of heart attack, high blood pressure, or loss of ability to pump.
Left-Sided Heart Failure
Abnormal condition characterized by decreased functioning of the left ventricle.
Assessment: Fatigue, breathlessness, dizziness, and confusion as result of tissue hypoxia from decrease CO.
Clinical: Crackles on auscultation, hypoxia, shortness of breath on exertion and often at rest, cough, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Right-Sided Heart Failure
Impaired functioning of the right ventricle characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.
Causes: Pulmonary disease or long-term left-sided heart failure.
Clinical: Weight gain, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and dependent peripheral edema.
Results when supply of blood to the myocardiam from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands.
chest pain (aching, sharp, tingling, or burning) caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries.
An obstruction of coronary artery causing death of an area of the myocardium due to blockage of blood and oxygen supply (aka Heart Attack)
State of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by cellular metabolism.
Alveolar ventilation inadequete to meet body's oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide.
Inadequete tissue oxygenation at the cellular level.
Blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.
MI S/S in Men
Chest discomfort or pain, upper body pain, stomach pain, shortness of breath (SOB), anxiety, dizzy, diaphoretic, nausea.vomiting (N/V)
MI S/S In Women
Pressure or pain that spreads to the shoulders, neck, upper back, jaw or arms, dizziness/light headedness, clammy, sweats, heart flutters or paleness, unusual and unexplained fatigue or weakness especially with exertion, nausea stomach or abdominal pain, "Flu Like" symptoms
The process of adding water to gas.
Adds moisture or medications to inspired air by mixing particles of varying sizes with the air.
Chest Physiotherapy (CPT)
A group of therapies used to mobilize pulmonary secretions.
A component of pulmonary hygiene consisting of drainage, positioning, and turning and is sometimes accompanied by chest percussion and vibration.
Encourages voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback to clients about inspiratory volume.
Catheter inserted through the thorax to remove air and fluids from the pleural space, to prevent air or fluid from reentering the pleural space, or to reestablish normal intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures.
Collection of air in the pleural space.
Accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae, usually as a result of trauma.
Simple and safe comfortable device used for oxygen delivery that delivers low concentrations while allowing the client to eat, speak, and drink.
Simple Face Mask
Assists in providing humidified oxygen.
Controls the amount of specified oxygen concentration and does not dry mucous membranes since it delivers humidity with oxygen concentration. Delivers from 24% to 60%
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CBA)
Circulation, Airway, Breathing
Helps the client to acheive and maintain an optimal level of health through controlled physical exercise, nutritional counseling, relaxation and stress management techniques, and prescribed medications and oxygen.
Client takes a slow, deep breath and holds it for two seconds while contracting expiratory muscles. Then the client opens the mouth and performs a series of coughs through exhalation, thereby coughing at progressively lowered lung volumes. This promotes airway clearance and a patent airway in clients with large volumes of sputum.
Stimulates natural cough reflex and is generally effective only for clearing central airways. While exhaling, the client opens the glottis by saying the word huff.
For clients without abdominal muscle control, such as those with spinal cord injuries. The client breathes out with the maximal expiratory effort, the client or nurse pushes inward and upward on the abdominal muscles toward the diaphragm, causing the cough
Deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse.
While sitting up, instruct the client to take a deep breath and exhale slowly through pursed lips, as if blowing through a straw.
Client concentrates on expanding the diaphragm during controlled inspiration.
Autonomic Nervous System
Influences the rate of impulse generation and speed of conduction pathways,
Decreases the rate and innervates atria, ventricles, sinoatrial, and antrioventriuclar nodes.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Increases the rate of impulse generation and impulse transmission and innervates all parts of atria and venticles
Originates within the SA node or pacemaker, transmitted to the AV node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers.
Subjective sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing (clinical sign of hypoxia)
Abnormal condition in which the client uses multiple pillows when lying down or must sit with the arms elevated and leaning forward to breathe.
Bloody sputum from gastrointestinal tract.
Visual examination of the tracheobronchial tree through a narrow, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. Performed to obtain fluid, sputum, or biopsy samples; remove mucous plugs or foreign bodies.
High pitched musical sound caused by high-velocity movement of air through a narrowed airway. Associated with acute bronchitis or pneumonia.
Echocardiogram or "echo"
Noninvasive measure of heart structure and heart wall motion. Graphically demonstrates overall cardiac performance.
Health heart 60% or more (but never 100%)
Heart failure 40% of less
Used to visualize cardiac chambers, valves, the great vessels, and coronary arteries. Pressures and volumes within the four chambers of the heart are also measured.
ECG Exercise Stress Test
ECG is monitored while the client walks on a treadmill at a specified speed and duration of time. Used to evaluate the cardiac response to physical stress. The test is not a valuable tool for evaluation of cardiac response in women due to an increased false-positive finding.
FACES- Who is the Patient with Heart Failure?
Edema or ankle swelling
Shortness of breath
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
fundamentals of nursing ch 39 oxygenation
Principles Test III Chapter 45 Urinary Elimination…
Chapter 40: Oxygenation
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Cardiovascular Emergencies AAOS Emergency Care and…
Med Surg Chapter 31; nursing care of patients with…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Community Health Nursing Test 1
Final Vocab Terms
Principles Exam III Other Chapters (42, 49, 27-31)
Principles Exam III Chapter 46 Bowel Elimination T…