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Soc Final Exam
Terms in this set (91)
Charles Spearman **
General Intelligence Theory
creator of "g-factor", or general intelligence, concept
-concluded people who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests.
-suggested that the g factor underlies all mental operations and that if it could be ascertained, it would approximate true intelligence
intelligence quotient (IQ) coined by William Stern
-first test was developed in 1916
-developed to develop special education programs, not to identify inborn intelligence.
-calculated by dividing the test takers mental age by their chronological age and multiplying it by 100
-H.H goddard used this scale to identify intellectually defective people in this country; he labeled them as feeble-minded and invented the word "moron" to describe morally defective individuals (criminals, alcoholics, prostitutes)
Louis Thurston: Primary Mental Abilities Theory
Theory: Primary Mental abilities
focused on seven different primary mental abilities:
1) Verbal comprehension
3) Perceptual speed
4) Numerical ability
5) Word fluency
6) Associative memory
7) Spatial visualization
Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligence Theory
numerical expressions of human intelligence are not full and accurate depiction of people's abilities.
2) verbal-linguistic intelligence
3) bodily-kinesthetic -athletic intelligence
4) logical-mathematical intelligence
5) musical intelligence
6) intra-personal intelligence
7) naturalistic intelligence
8) interpersonal intelligence
Robert Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of intelligence
defines intelligence as a "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection, and shaping of, real world environments relevant to one's life"
"Successful intelligence" is comprised of:
1) Analytical intelligence: problem solving abilities
2) creative intelligence: ability to deal with new situations used past experiences and current skills
3) Practical intelligence: ability to adapt to a changing environment
Peter Salovey Theory of Emotional Intelligence
developed broad framework of "emotional intelligence"
1) emotional awareness (Ability to identify your own emotions and those of others)
2) harness emotions: to apply them to tasks like problem solving and abstract visualization
3) manage emotions: to apply them to people management- inspire, cheer, motivate others
Spiritual Intelligence **
(Dannah Zohar and Robert Emmons)
-indicates spiritual parallels with IQ and EQ
4 components of spiritual intelligence
1) capacity to transcend the physical and material
2) ability to experience heightened states of consciousness
3) ability to sanctify everyday experience
4) ability to utilize spiritual resources to solve world problems
a pseduoscience attemping to scientifically prove the existence of separate human races to improve the population's genetic composition by favoring some races over others
demeaning historical term for interracial marriage
means a continuous variation in form between members of a species having a wide variable geographical or ecological range.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
A generalized belief about a group of people
a flawed system of classification, with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups
ideas that present the universe as an orderly system including answer to basic questions about the place and significance of humankind.
process of change within the genetic makeup of a species over time
discrete units of heredity information that determine specific physical characteristics of organisms
the exchange of genes between populations as a result of interbreeding
the study of genes, the units of heredity
in taxonomic classification, it relates to the subfamily Homininae which includes humans and their immediate ancestors. Hominins share a number of distinct characteristcs, particularly bidpedalism.
a theory presented by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace stating that nature or environmental circumstances determine which characteristics are essential to survival. Individuals with these characteristics survive and pass them onto their offspring.
a diverse order of mammals, including monkeys, apes, and humans
the late stone age, which is the most recent period of the Paleolithic. It is defined by archaeologists on the basis of changes in stone tool technology, as well as other technological innovations
According to anthropology, do biologically separate races exist? Why or why not?
No, genetically there is only one race- the human race. There is no scientific basis for classifications of race. Many people see 'race' or human diversity, through those in power to organize the distribution of privileges and resources.
What is human difference research?
Attempts to find Genetic differences between human races.
Establish the validity of "race" category
How many "poor whites" (see description) are there in the US today and what is the connection between economic status and "white privilege" ?
22.3 million people
Privilege is tied to socioeconomic class, more money = more privilege
• All whites have white privilege regardless of class, but wealthy whites are even more advantaged in society.
Explain the difference between individual racism vs. institutional racism
Individual Racism is expressed through prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory actions.
Institutional racism describes racial inequality that is structured through key cultural institutions, employment, the legal system, law enforcement, and the media.
how are racism and colonialism related?
The classification of people based on phenotype, particularly skin color, became the key framework for creating a hierarchy of races with Europeans at the top that linked people's looks with assumptions about their intelligence, physical abilities, capacity for culture, and basic worth. This framework justified colonial conquests, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the eradication of much of the indigenous population of the Americas.
How much DNA do human beings share?
What does the US Census tell us about race
It tells us that race has been and is still an evolving human construction. More categories keep being created and census workers can assign individuals to a racial category based on their appearance. (not scientific basis)
When did middle eastern become a racial category?
after the september 11th terrorist attacks
individual thoughts and actions and institutional patterns and policies that create unequal access to power, resources, and opportunities based on imagined differences among groups
the inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organism's physical form
the way genes are expressed in an organism's physical form (both visible and invisible) as result of the interaction of genotype with environmental factors such as nutrition, disease, and stress
the belief that whites are biologically different and superior to people of other races
Laws implemented after the U.S. civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery
a culturally constructed concept originating in 1961 virginia, designed to establish clear boundaries of who is white and who is not, a process central to the formation of U.S. racial stratification
Sometimes called the 'one drop of blood rule" the assignment of children racially "mixed" unions to the subordinate group
favoring certain long-term inhabitants over new immigrants
to categorize, differentiate, and attribute a particular racial character to a person or group of people
A person's view of the world, consisting of the set of beliefs on which he bases his life.
account for the ways in which supernatural beings or forces formed the Earth and people
-they are transmitted from generation to generation through ritual, education, laws, art, and cultural performances such as dance and music.
Charles Darwin (finches)
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
-studied finches of the Galapagos Islands and their trait variation
-variation of beak size is a good illustration of how natural selection may act on different species, but also show the significance of variation within individual species
hypothetical extinct creature halfway in the evolutionary line between modern human beings and their anthropoid progenitors
know the wider implications of monogenesis vs. polygenesis. Why did scientists develop polygenesis?
wanted to claim there was differences between races
-say that some groups came into being independently in different parts of the world (racially driven; wanted to disprove journey of man hypothesis)
Multiregional Evolutionary Model
The view that Homo sapiens evolved from Homo erectus concurrently in different regions of the world.
The hypothesis that only one subpopulation of Homo erectus, probably located in Africa, underwent a rapid spurt of evolution to produce Homo sapiens 200,000-100,000 years ago. After that time, H. sapiens would itself have multiplied and moved out of Africa, gradually populating the globe and eventually replacing any remaining populations of H. erectus or their descendants.
Hybridization and Assimilation Model
models of the evolution of anatomically modern humans that allow for varying degrees of gene flow between Homo sapiens and earlier populations of archaic H. sapiens via gene flow or genetic admixture
Alfred Russell Wallace
English naturalist who proposed, independently of Charles Darwin, the concept of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution and as a way to explain the great variety of living things
Ranked intelligence by measuring skull capacity (size, volume). Implies connection between race and intelligence. Caucasian, Mongoloid, Malaysian, American, Ethiopian
re-examined Mortons data on race and skulls and concluded that Morton's summaries were a "patchwork of fudging and finagling" to reach conclusions that supported the socially constructed hierarchy.
What did Gregor Mendel do?
mendel began a series of breeding experiments with pea plants and helped shape our basic understanding of inheritance.
-established the science of genetics
What is a primate and when did primates first appear in fossil record?
primates are diverse group that share similarities such as increased brain size, stereoscopic vision, grasping hands and feet, longer periods of offspring dependence on their mothers, a complex social life and enhanced learning abilities
- first appeared 67 million years ago
What is Theistic evolution?
promotes the view that God creates through the evolutionary processes
-supporters accept the modern scientific findings in astronomy, biology, genetics, and fossil and geological evidence but see God as intervening in how evolution takes place
Which homo sapiens is the "caveman" stereotype based upon? Is this accurate based on the supposed intelligence level of this hominin?
What is remarkable about how this hominin treated their dead?
not accurate- denisovans more closely resemble modern humans.
Neandertals were the First hominins to intentionally bury their dead.
What is the other term for Paleolithic? What does "upper" and "lower" mean?
Refers to "Old Stone Age" where upper indicates the later part of this period.
How did hominins differ from primates?
they had the ability to walk erect on two legs (bipedalism)
What is the g factor?
purposeful, organized, and socially sanctioned combat that involves killing
Bias in favor of collective violence
1) rewarding group members for violent acts in war
2) using violent acts as a way to gain status
3) making violence necessary to protect valuable resources
4) featuring violent stories in their origin myths
5) socializing children (especially males) to be aggressive and hostile
6) making violence (revenge, duels, etc) as part of an honor code
7) framing violence as a cosmic, religious struggle between good and evil
8) using religious or political moral ideologies to justify violent acts
9) cultivating male dominance and sexism
Bias against violent conflict
1) strongly emphasizing sharing, cooperation, and interdependence especially in terms of material resources
2) minimizing individual accomplishments: people are taught not to boast or seek exceptional status
3) carefully controlling emotions especially one's temper and shunning those who break this code
4) discouraging direct commands or telling other people what to do
5) teaching that even violent or angry and resentful thoughts are wrong and discourage such thinking
6) considering blood and violence as polluting or defiling behaviors that require shunning
7) performing community - affirming ceremonies, epsecially healing ceremonies
8) placing high value on nonaggressive behavior
9) cultivating relatively equal status between males and females
terms that using metaphor and euphemisms to hide the real meaning or purpose of the action, (which is often the killing of human beings)
massive bombings in one area
christmas tree farms
piles of nuclear weapons in a nuclear submarines
re-entry vehicles or RVs
bombs and missiles
pattern in which a bomb falls
storage for missiles
attacking first based on the belief that the enemy will soon attack
peace or truce
human terrain system HTS
teams that provide battlefield commanders knowledge of the enemy's "cultural terrain" society, community, culture, customs
What is the purpose for using technostrategic language in nuclear war armaments production?
used to distance the planners from the consequences of the actions they are planning
The "Army of God" was a militant religious group that practiced what they called "justifiable homicide" what did they do?
they killed abortion providers
After studying 1,000 societies, anthropologists William Divale and Marvin Harris concluded that collective bias is highest in societies characterized by a strong male bias. What are the examples they give of strong male bias?
Patrilocal residence, patrilineal descent, polygyny, post marital sex restrictions on females, male secret societies and men's houses
The tribal culture of the Yanomamo of Venezuela and Brazil have been the upheld as the quintessential "violent (savage) society." Napoleon Chagnon began studying the Yanomamo in 1964 and his books made this tribal group infamous for the violence in their culture. What does waiteri mean and what is the waiteri complex?
waiteri means fierceness
-each man strives to acquire females
The depiction of the Yanomamo as an especially violent society been challenged by other anthropologists who have worked with this group. In the textbook anthropologist Brian Ferguson explains the violence of this culture differently than Napoleon Chagnon. What were two explanations for Yanomamo violence that Ferguson suggests might have originated from sources outside the tribe itself?
Presence of new outpost settlements of government agents, missionaries, and researchers; competition for western manufactured goods; breakdown of social relations brought by epidemics and depletion of game and other food sources
According Thomas Gregor, since war is so widespread in human societies, the true task of an anthropologist is to explain what?
Not to explain war- explain peace
In the chapter, anthropologist Leslie Sponsel notes that peace studies emphasizes what five topics?
Nonviolence, peace, life, creativity, cooperation
What percent of all armament (weapons) expenditures in the world is spent by the U.S.?
For the Kohistani in Pakistan, how do villagers use revenge to create a bias toward collective violence?
• It's a part of their honor code
• code demands vengeance against any threat to a man's honor
Many people died in WWII in the United States. Did it cause a substantial loss to the population of this country?
• no because the populations recovered within a decade to the level they would have been with no war, only 0.2% was lost
Does death from war and violent conflicts cause a substantial loss to the population of small-scale societies? Give an example
Murnin of Australia, 28% of male deaths were due to war
What is the main point of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
language can shape the way you think
What are the three main metaphors used in the english language?
since our language is structured to preference certain ways of thinking, how can we create a society more oriented toward peace and sharing even when we use the English language?
more peace metaphors
get rid of restrictions and ownership on objects
Why did the author decide to learn and how did Dr. Robin learn her native Potawatomi language?
her family has a rich history (her grandfather was put in boarding camps) she wanted to preserve their culture
she learned by attending classes, talking to her sister and dog, using post it notes to label objects
what percentage of the world today use english?
which has more nouns? english or bodewadmimwen
which language is mostly verbs?
does the grammar of animacy article--"language is a mirror for seeing the animacy of the world" agree or disagree with the Sapi-Whorf hypothesis?
-offshoot group from a longstanding Christian Denomincation called Seventh Day Adventists
- believed in the biblical prophecies- were apocaltypic
-led by David Koresh, who claimed to be a savior figure
Groups linked to Branch Davidians
Unification Church (large scale weddings)
UFO religions like Heaven's Gate -- committed suicide because they believed their souls were temporarily housed there
Raelians (cloning is the only hope for immortality)
People's Temple - mass suicide
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