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Cells Test Quizlet
Terms in this set (92)
What is the current accepted model of the cell membrane?
What is the fluid part of the fluid mosaic model?
The phospholipids responsible for maintaining fluidity and flexibility in the cell membrane.
What is the mosaic part of the fluid mosaic model?
The cell membrane is filled with various proteins
What type of movement is most common in the cell membrane?
What are integral proteins?
Any protein that enters the hydrophobic portion of the cell membrane
What are transmembrane proteins?
Any protein that spans the entire cell membrane
What group of proteins are transport proteins part of?
How do plants control fluidity in their cell membranes?
They change the composition of the fatty acid tails in the phospholipid bilayer
What are oligosaccharides?
Small carbohydrate chain on the surface of the cell membrane
What are the function of oligosaccharides?
They play a role in cellular identification and orientation
What are carrier proteins?
Selective transport proteins that have a specific shape. Can be part of active or facilitate transport
What are channel proteins?
A hollow protein that allows passive transport through the protein as long as they are small enough to fit
What are the criteria for active transport?
1. Goes against the concentration gradient
2. Requires energy
What are the criteria for passive transport?
1. Goes with the concentration gradient
2. Does not require energy
What are the criteria for diffusion across the membrane?
What kind of molecules can easily move across the cell membrane?
Small, non-polar, neutral molecules
Why can water travel through the membrane?
They can travel through because they are small, albeit very slowly because they are polar
Which carrier protein carries water across the membrane?
What are the three types of passive transport?
1. Simple Diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from high to low
What are the three types of solutions?
What happens if an animal cell is in an isotonic solution?
No net water movement and the cell reaches dynamic equalibrium
What happens if an animal cell is in a hypertonic solution?
Water moves out of the cell, the cell crenates
What happens if an animal cell is in a hypotonic solution?
Water moves into the cell, the cell bursts (lyse)
What happens if a plant cell is in an isotonic solution?
What happens if a plant cell is in a hypertonic solution?
Water moves out of the cell. Plasmolysis
What happens if a plant cell is in a hypotonic solution?
Water moves into the cell. Turgor pressure increases.
How are solutions defined?
By their solute concentration
What is tonicity?
The ability of a cell to gain or lose water
How does simple diffusion occur?
Simple diffusion occurs between the phospholipids in the bilayer. Gases move freely through the bilayer.
How does facilitated diffusion occur?
By using carrier and channel carrier proteins
What is the difference between carrier and channel proteins?
Carrier proteins have a specific binding site, while channel proteins do not
What kind of molecule does facilitate diffusion move?
Larger, polar and charged molecules
What are the two types of active transport?
Pumps and bulk transport
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
An active transport protein that occurs in animal cells that transport sodium ions out of the cell and transport potassium ions into the cell. Used for cell signaling.
What is the proton pump?
Transport pump for energy across the mitochondrial membrane in plant cells
What is endocytosis?
Transport of large substances into the cell using vesicles. The cell surrounds the substance and creates a vesicle.
What is the endocytosis of solids called?
What is the endocytosis of liquids called?
What is receptor mediated endocytosis?
Specific molecules are taken in after they bind to a receptor in the vesicle during endocytosis
What is exocytosis?
Transport of large substances out of the cell by using a vesicle. The vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and the substance is secreted.
What is the difference in charge across the membrane called?
What is the electrochemical gradient?
The concentration difference of an ion across a membrane
What is osmolarity?
Measure of total concentration of solute particles
What is the mitochondria?
Organelle that engages in cellular respiration, which converts oxygen and glucose into ATP and secretes carbon dioxide
What is the chloroplast?
Organelle in the plant cells captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce glucose.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Stores the genetic material and controls the functions of the cell
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Creates ribosomal subunits
What is the nuclear envelope?
- Surrounds the nucleus and regulates what enters and leaves the nucleus
- Contains nuclear pores
What is the function of the rough ER?
Produces proteins that become part of the cell membrane or are excreted from the cell
What is the function of the smooth ER?
- Synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates
What is the function of the Golgi body?
- Packages and processes cells and allows for the production of more complex molecules such as glycoproteins
- Produces lysosomes
What is on the surface of the rough ER?
What is the function of free ribosomes?
Synthesis of proteins that stay within the cell
What is the function of lysosomes?
Breaks down unneeded molecules using hydrolytic enzymes
What is the function of the cell membrane?
Regulates what enters and exits the cell
What is the function of the cell wall?
A rigid layer that supports plant cells and provides shape.
Where is the cytoplasm located?
Between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
What is the cytosol?
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm that suspends all organelles
What are the three things that form the cytoskeleton?
1. Actin filaments (microfilaments)
2. Intermediate filaments
What organelles are made of microtubules?
What is the function of actin filaments?
Contractions of the cell
What is the function of intermediate filaments?
Provides structural stability and shape to the cell
What is the function of microtubules?
Protein structures that are used for transport and movement around the cell
What are microtubules made of?
Which organelle makes microtubules?
What is the function of a peroxisome?
They are helpers to the mitochondria and break down hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic to the cell
What is the cell membrane made of?
Phospholipids and proteins
What are the parts of the endomembrane system?
Consists of the nuclear envelope, Golgi body, vesicles, smooth and rough ER, cell membrane, and lysosomes
What is the ideal ratio of surface area and volume in a cell?
High surface area, low volume
What are the three parts of cell theory?
1. All known living things are made up of one or more cells
2. All living cells arise from pre-existing cells by division
3. The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms
Why are organelles important in eukaryotic cells?
They allow the cells to perform multiple functions at one time
What is the significance of the folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
It increases surface area which increases the amount of ATP produced
What are the folds of the inner membrane of mitochondria called?
What do chloroplasts contain?
Chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Where is the nucleolus located?
Inside the nucleus
What are hydrolytic enzymes?
Enzymes that use water to break down materials
What is the cell wall made of in plants, fungi, and bacteria?
Plants - Celluose
Fungi - Chitin
Bacteria - Peptodiglycan
What is the function of microtubules within the cytoskeleton?
Movement of vesicles
How do you calculate total magnification?
Eye piece (10x unless otherwise noted) multiplied by the objective lens
What organelle is abundant in muscle cells?
What does selectively permeable mean?
Only allowing certain materials to pass through
How do large materials go through the cell membrane?
How do materials too large for transport proteins enter and exit the cell?
Endocytosis and exocytosis
How can you identify steroids?
Four carbon rings
How do animals cells control fluidity?
What are proteins called that are located only in the hydrophilic region of the membrane?
What polarity are peripheral proteins?
What is the function of enzymatic proteins?
Produces enzymes to speed up cell processes
What is the function of receptor proteins?
Triggers a cellular response when bound to
What is the function cell recognition proteins?
Helps recognize other cells
What is the function junction proteins?
Joins cells together to form larger functional units
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