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53 terms

blood vocab

blood vocab
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hematocrit
is a measurement of the proportion of blood that contains the RBCs
histology
biology, study of tissues
microcapillary tube
the tube that is used in a hematocrit
reason for low hematocrit
1. lack RBCs
2. too much water
reason for high hematocrit
1. too many RBCs
2. dehydration
Anemia
1. lack of hemoglobin
2. lack of RBCs
iron deficiency
most common anemia
not enough hemoglobin b/c lack iron
Pernicious
anemia
not enough RBC b/c lack Vit B12
Sickle cell
anemia
destruction of RBC
Polycythemia
too many RBCs.
most common in chronic lung disease
blood gets thicker
erythropoiesis
formation of RBCs
erythropoietin
decrease in blood oxygen causes kidney & liver to release
stimulate bone marrow to make more
kidneys measure oxygen content and are primary control of how many RBCs there are
diapedesis
cells become thin, elongate and move either between or thru endothelial cells of capillaries
chemotaxis
attraction to and movement towards foreign materials or damaged cells
neutrophils
function: attack & destroy bacteria
phagocytic
diapedesis
secrete lyzosome
die quickly
lymphocytes
function: specific immunity, respond to infections
lymphatic tissues
responsible for antibody production
monocytes
function: becomes macrophages & engulf lg. foreign particles
in blood
mobile and phagocytic
eosinophils
function: respond to allergic reations & parasitic infections
enter tissues during inflammation response
lines respiratory & digestive tracts
basophils
function: promotes inflammation & healing of wounds
involved in inflammatory & allergic
produce histamine & heparin
mast cells
mast cells
immune system cell which antibodies become attached in early states of inflammation
leukopenia
low WBC count
leukocytosis
high WBC count
differential WBC count
list %'s of types of leukocytes
formationof WBC
1. colony stimulating factors
2. interleukin
erythrocytes
RBC
transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide
leukocytes
WBC
protect against pathogens
thrombocytes
platelets
involved in blood clotting
pinched off megakaryote
platelets - 3 characteristics
1. adhesive = stickey
2. aggregate = platelets come together
3. agglutination = clump together (not clot)
thrombocytopenia
too few platelets
thromocytosis
too many platelets
agglutination
clumping of RBCs in response to a reaction btw an antibody and antigen
antigen
on the RBC
molecule that stimulates cells to produce antibodies
antibody
in the plasma
protein that reacts against a specific antigen
Type A
Antigen A
Anti-B antibody
Type B
Antigen B
Anti-A antibody
Type AB
Antigen A & B
no antibody
universal recepient
Type O
no antigens
Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
universal donor
Rh positive
Rn antigen
no antibody
you can get both Rh-positve and Rh negative because you have no antibodies
Rh-negative
no Rh antigen
no antibody
Rhogam
shot before and after birth if you are a Rh-negative mother and have a Rh-positive baby
Plasma
91% water
proteins, ions, nutrients, wastes gases, regulatory subst
plasma proteins (3)
1. albumin - viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer
2. Globulins - transports lipids, carbs, hormones, antibodies
3. Fibrinogen - blood clotting, hold clot in place
gamma globulins synthesized by plasma cell (B cells)
coagulation
1. stop bleeding
2. prevent blood loss
Requires: platelets & plasma proteins, calcium
hemostasis
arrest of bleeding
1. vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
2. platelet plug
3. coagulation or blood clotting
prothrombin triggers
thrombin
add calcium and the fibrinogen
fibrinogen triggers
fibrin
extrinsic pathway
cut yourself and starts a series
intrinsic
starts inside your body b/c of disease
factors that prevent clotting
1. smooth endothelium
2. heparin (anti-coagulant)
factor that promote clotting
1. stasis - lack of blood flow
2. damaged endothelium
thrombis
clot
thrombosis
condition of stationary clot
embolus
mobile clot