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32 terms

bio ch 6

ms eichman ch6 test
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aerobic
uses oxygen
anaerobic
doesn't use oxygen
respiration
breathing
formula for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
40%
% of glucose's energy a typical cell banks
2%
% of glucose's energy a muscle cell harvests anaerobically
redox reaction
the movement of electrons from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation
the loss of electrons from one substance
reduction
the addition of electrons to another substance
dehydrogenase
an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule
NAD+
an organic molecule that is used to shuttle electrons in redox reactions
electron carriers
shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy ultimately used for ATP synthesis
electron transport chains
series of electron carriers
chemiosmosis
the production of ATP using the energy of H+ gradients across membranes, powers most ATP production
ATP synthase
synthesize ATP using energy stored in concentration gradients of H+i ions across membranes
substrate-level phosphorylation
when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP
Krebs cycle
completes the breakdown of glucose by decomposing a derivative of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide
glycolysis
begins respirations by breaking glucose into two molecules of compound called pyruvic acid
intermediates
the compounds that form between the initial reactant, glucose, and the final product, pyruvic acid
acetyl CoA
a high-energy fuel molecule for the Krebs cycle, needed for glucose to enter the Krebs cycle
38
maximum ATP per glucose
alcoholic fermentation
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, the production of ethanol from glucose (slow muscle fibers)
lactic acid fermentation
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, lactic acid is produced when NADH from glycolysis is oxidized (fast muscle fibers)
strict anaerobes
the bacteria that live in stagnant ponds and deep in the soil
facultative anaerobes
make ATP either by fermentation or chemiosmosis, depending on the availibility of O2 (yeast)
fast muscle fibers
anaerobically, lighter color
slow muscle fibers
aerobically, darker color
citric
first acid
alpha-ketoglutaric
second acid
succinic
third acid
malic
fourth acid
oxaloacetic
fifth acid