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the movement of electrons from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction
an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule
shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy ultimately used for ATP synthesis
the production of ATP using the energy of H+ gradients across membranes, powers most ATP production
synthesize ATP using energy stored in concentration gradients of H+i ions across membranes
when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP
completes the breakdown of glucose by decomposing a derivative of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide
begins respirations by breaking glucose into two molecules of compound called pyruvic acid
the compounds that form between the initial reactant, glucose, and the final product, pyruvic acid
a high-energy fuel molecule for the Krebs cycle, needed for glucose to enter the Krebs cycle
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, the production of ethanol from glucose (slow muscle fibers)
lactic acid fermentation
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, lactic acid is produced when NADH from glycolysis is oxidized (fast muscle fibers)
make ATP either by fermentation or chemiosmosis, depending on the availibility of O2 (yeast)
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