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ms eichman ch6 test


uses oxygen


doesn't use oxygen



formula for cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP


% of glucose's energy a typical cell banks


% of glucose's energy a muscle cell harvests anaerobically

redox reaction

the movement of electrons from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction


the loss of electrons from one substance


the addition of electrons to another substance


an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule


an organic molecule that is used to shuttle electrons in redox reactions

electron carriers

shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy ultimately used for ATP synthesis

electron transport chains

series of electron carriers


the production of ATP using the energy of H+ gradients across membranes, powers most ATP production

ATP synthase

synthesize ATP using energy stored in concentration gradients of H+i ions across membranes

substrate-level phosphorylation

when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP

Krebs cycle

completes the breakdown of glucose by decomposing a derivative of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide


begins respirations by breaking glucose into two molecules of compound called pyruvic acid


the compounds that form between the initial reactant, glucose, and the final product, pyruvic acid

acetyl CoA

a high-energy fuel molecule for the Krebs cycle, needed for glucose to enter the Krebs cycle


maximum ATP per glucose

alcoholic fermentation

CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, the production of ethanol from glucose (slow muscle fibers)

lactic acid fermentation

CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, lactic acid is produced when NADH from glycolysis is oxidized (fast muscle fibers)

strict anaerobes

the bacteria that live in stagnant ponds and deep in the soil

facultative anaerobes

make ATP either by fermentation or chemiosmosis, depending on the availibility of O2 (yeast)

fast muscle fibers

anaerobically, lighter color

slow muscle fibers

aerobically, darker color


first acid


second acid


third acid


fourth acid


fifth acid

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