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WGU Introduction to Sociology - C273 Remake
Terms in this set (199)
Suggested we apply scientific method to social world, which is known as Positivism
Viewed society as a living organism, similar to an animals body - must function together to function smoothly. (functional analysis)
*Called 2nd founder of sociology
*disagreed with Conte, believed sociologists should not guide social reform
*societies are evolving from lower to higher form
*society's most capable and intelligent members service - the less capable die out
*fittest members produce a more advanced society "The survival of the fittest" or "Social Darwinism" (credited to Darwin because he applied it to organisms.
Viewed society as a living organism, similar to an animals body - must function together to function smoothly. (functional analysis)
*believed the engine of human history is class conflict
*society is made up of 2 classes
*economics is a central force in social change
*Bourgeoisie - capitalist own the means of production, money, land, factories and machines
*Proletariat - workers;
*workers will unite and bread their chains of bondage
*introduced Conflict Theory
*did not think of himself as a sociologist
Own the means of production - money, land, factories, and machines.
*succeeded in getting sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline
*how social forces affect peoples behavior
When all parts of society fulfill their part it is in a "normal" state
If they do not fulfill their function it is in an "abnormal" or pathological state. (functional analysis)
Degree to which people are tied to their social groups.
People with weaker social ties are more likely to commit suicide
Patterns of behavior or recurring patterns or events
*used cross culture and historical materials to trace the cause of social change and how social groups affect peoples orientation to life
*disagreed with Karl Marx
*Roman Catholics taught to hold on to tradition, protestant taught to embrace change
*looked for sign they were in Gods good grace
*financial success-live frugal lives, saving and investing money "the spirit of capitalism"
This brought about capitalism
*did writings because women were to focus on church, cooking, children and clothes
*early female sociologist
*viewed sociology as a path to reform and improve society (stop lynchings, integrate immigrants, improve working conditions)
Sociologist and social reformer
*came from wealth and privilege
*founded Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr
C. Wright Mills
Pushed sociologist to go back to push social reform
Basic (or pure) sociology
Sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups
The use of sociology to solve problems from classroom integration and family relationships to crime and pollution
Applying sociology for the public good; especially sociological perspective (how things relate to one another) to guide politicians and policy makers
General statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how 2 or more facts are related to one another
3 major theoretical perspectives
Theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world and communicate with one another
Analyze how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others. Study face to face interactions, examine how people make sense of their live and place in it
(i.e. sister vs girlfriend, brother vs boyfriend)
George Herbert is one of the founders
Functional Analysis (functionalism, structural functionalism)
Theory in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that when fulfilled contributes to society's equilibrium.
Society is made up of a whole unit of interrelated parts that work together.
Sociologists that had functional analysis theories
Dismissed comparing society to a living organism, but maintained the essence of functionalism
Used the terms functions, dysfunctions, manifest, latent, and latent dysfunctions
Refers to beneficial consequences of people's actions (help keep a group in balance) i.e. family running a farm
Can be manifest or latent
Harmful consequences of people's actions (they undermine the systems equilibrium)
An action is INTENDED to help some part of the system
An UNINTENDED consequence that helps a system adjust
Actions that UNINTENTIONALLY hurt a system
Suggests that society is composed of groups that compete with one another for scarce resources
On the surface it shows cooperation, under the surface struggle for power
Karl Marx - founder, witnessed the Industrial Revolution
8 Steps of the Research Model
1-select a topic (what do you want to learn about)
2-define the problem (what do you want to learn about the topic)
3-Reviewing the literature (helps pinpoint questions)
4-Formulate a hypothesis (what do you expect to find according to predictions from a theory)
5-Choose a research method
6-Collecting the data (assure the validity and reliability)
7-Analyzing the results
8-Sharing the results
Extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
Extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
5-Analysis of Documents
Research Model Surveys
Collection of data by having people answer a series of questions and selection a sample
Narrow population (a target group to be studied (high school males)
Select a sample (individuals intended to represent the population to be studied)
Ask natural questions
A sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the survey
Stratified random sample
A sample from selected subgroups of the target population (freshmen and seniors)
People who respond to a survey
Types of survey questions
Closed ended questions (questions followed by a list of possible answers)
Open ended questions - respondents answer in their own words
Research Model - Participant Observation
Researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
For example, if your campus has a crisis intervention center, you may be able to observe victims of spouse abuse from the time they report the attack through their participation in counseling. With good rapport, you may be able to spend time with them in other settings. This, in turn, may give you insight into how to improve college counseling services.
Research Model - Case Studies
Intensive analysis of a single event, situation or individual
Research Model - Secondary Analysis
The analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
Research Model - Analysis of documents
Examine books, newspapers, diaries, bank records, police reports, immigration files, lets.. also includes video and audio recordings
Research Model - Experiments
Use of controlled and experimental groups and dependent and undefended variables to test causation
The group subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
Subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
A factor that causes a change in another variable
A factor that is changed by an independent variable
Research Model - Unobtrusive measures
Ways of observing people so they don't know they are being studied
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that characterize a group and are passed from 1 generation to the next
Objects that distinguish a group of people. i.e. art, jewelry, buildings, utensils, machines, hairstyles, cotton
A groups way of thinking and doing- beliefs, values and other assumptions about the world
It's common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction, also called [symbolic culture]
The disorientation that people feel when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their "taken-for-granted" assumptions of life
Belief that own culture is the most superior
Use of own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their value norms and behaviors
Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on it's own terms
Measures traits or behaviors that can be numerically calculated
Deals with traits or behaviors that cannot be assigned a number.
Rules of principles or behaviors
Focuses on broad, or large-scale, patterns in society (for example, communities, organizations, and so on).
Functional and conflict theorists perform these analyses.
Examines smaller-scale patterns of social life, such as individual relationships. Symbolic Interactionists are associated with these analyses.
Assumes there is a significant relationship between individual or group behavior and their social setting
Stresses the social context in which we live
Opens unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar worlds
Looks at social location, the place people occupy because of who and where they are in society
A society that embraces many different religious, racial, ethnic, and special interest groups. The United States is considered to be a pluralistic society.
Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929)
Known for theory of the "looking-glass self."
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Known for identifying four stages of development in reasoning.
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)
Known for pointing out the importance of play in learning to take the role of the other.
Six major emotions:
The idea or mental image one has of oneself, which includes an idea of one's strengths, weaknesses, and status.
Agents of socialization.
People and groups that influence our behaviors, attitudes, emotions, and self concept
Learning to play a role before entering it.
Social interactions are tuned to be acceptable and in line with the culture of an organization.
______ are guided toward physical, emotional, and social development by their parents, who also ensure protection, comfort, and care.
________ face difficult issues as they try to understand who they truly are and identify their place in society. They sometimes develop their own standards of clothing, hairstyles, language, music, and other markers of identity.
Young adulthood (18-29)
During ________, self-identity becomes more stable; this is often a period of high optimism.
________ are often sure of what they want and desire to work toward those goals; however, they tend to face challenges at this point in life, such as divorce, job layoffs, and debt, that may keep them from their goals. This is one of the most trying periods.
Late Middle Years (50-65)
People take a different view of life during this period. Individuals frequently feel dissatisfied with their lives and try to reevaluate what they should be doing.
Older years (66 and beyond)
People begin to have a sharpened awareness of shortening time. This may be combined with potential frailty and illness. Impending death becomes a consideration.
Any violation of norms, whether minor or serious.
Howard S. Becker
Said it is not the act itself that makes it deviant; it is society's reaction to the act.
Said when a person is believed to have deviated from his or her culture's norms, other members of the culture may strongly disapprove. This powerful disapproval is called social stigma
By Edwin Sutherland
We learn to deviate or conform to the norms according to the different groups we associate with.
People are not mere pawns; individuals help produce their own orientation and shape their own selves.
Example: Members of the Mafia intertwine ideas of manliness with violence. For them, killing is a measure of manhood. Some killings are done to enforce norms. Violation of omerta, the Mafia's vow of secrecy, can never be tolerated, because it threatens the very existence of the group. This also indicates how relative deviance is. Although killing is deviant in mainstream society, not to kill when rules are broken in a Mafia gang is the deviant act.
By Walter Reckless
Means: Everyone is propelled toward deviance, but two control systems work against the motivation to deviate:
Inner controls are our capacity to withstand temptations toward deviance; they include morality, integrity, fear of punishment, and desire to do and to be good.
Outer controls are people or influences that encourage us to conform to the rules. Parents or other loved ones, role models, and the police are examples of external influences over a person's behavior.
Travis Hirschi noted that strong bonds to society lead to more effective inner controls.
Example: Drug use is an interesting example of deviance. Suppose you are invited to a party and everyone is using marijuana. They invite you to do some with them. Reflect on the conflict you may feel here. The enticement is to take the drug to fit in with your friends, your peer group, and the setting, and also to satisfy your curiosity. The rejection of such behavior comes from your conscience, the thought of your parents, the fear of arrest, and your knowledge of the danger of using drugs.
Society describes certain people with labels, such as "mentally ill" or "delinquent" or "genius." Those labels affect the perceptions of others and those who are labeled, thus channeling them into deviance or conformity.
Labels given to people affect the way they perceive themselves and how others perceive them. People begin to behave as if their labels are accurate.
As a result of behaving in ways that fit their labels, people's opportunities can develop or disappear.
In some cultures, deviant behavior leads to ceremonies, where the offender is forced to live with insults every day and is marked as shameful. College hazing is an example of this, as is a recent trend by some judges to force petty criminals to publicly declare their deviance by holding signs on street corners describing their crimes.
Today, some deviants are considered unfit to live among law-abiding citizens and are imprisoned. A private-corporation business in building and maintaining prisons and jails thrives in the United States as a result.
Medical professionals attempt to medicate many forms of deviance, believing that deviance comes from mental illness and is not simply a behavioral problem. From Ritalin to Haldol to Zoloft, chemical behavior control is a booming business. Medications are sometimes necessary and useful but have often been used as population control and not as treatment.
People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group
Individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together
People, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together
A small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
A larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
Groups made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships and voluntary organizations
Iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self perpetuating elite
a group toward which one feels loyalty
group toward which one feels antagonism
A group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
The social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
A cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another
A formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications, and records
-a division of labor
An organization replacing old goals with new ones; also known as goal replacement
Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by workers being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product—this leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; others use the term in the general sense of not feeling a part of something
Who defined the word sociology
How each group thinks it's standards are best, Often a negative thinking
Preconceived ideas of what someone is like that lead to the person's behaving in ways that match the stereotype
Hidden corporate culture
Stereotypes of the traits that make for high performing and under-performing workers
The ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
A group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
A group of two members, the smallest and most fragile of all groups example marriages and love affair
Extremely unstable but are stronger than dyads. For example a married couple with a child
The alignment of some members of a group against others
Someone who influences other people
An individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task-oriented leader
An individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socio-emotional leader
Ways in which people express their leadership
An individual who leads by giving orders
An individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
An individual who leads by being highly permissive
A narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer and that to even suggest alternatives is a sign of disloyalty
What is The position of conflict theorists regarding deviance
Deviant behavior is defined by power
What is one factor psychologists in contrast to sociologist favorite when explaining deviant behavior?
What is a secondary group?
A group that is created through similar interests activities or professions
Who was the first to analyze bureaucracies as powerful forms of social organization that are concerned with the bottom line?
A student is well prepared for class assignment and feels confident she knows the correct answers to the questions teacher last discussion. However the student is reluctant to answer the questions to avoid making her classmates look bad. What term explains this behavior?
Which social structure concept did Emily Durkheim referred to as shared consciousness that develops from groups performing similar tasks?
What type of influence would convince people to participate in heinous act according to Stanley milligrams of research?
Marriage is extended, it is embedded in large kinship network of explicit obligations (economic production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, recreation, sexual control, and reproduction) in which societies?
Marriage is nuclear it has fewer expectations on the spouses relatives (many functions are for filled by other institutions) in which societies?
Industrial and postindustrial society's
Which theoretical perspective holds that marriage is a tool for societal survival?
What have sociologist observe about Cole have attach cohabitation in the US since 1970?
Rates of cohabitation have rapidly increased
How does social class affect parenting?
Working class parents tend to have jobs with strict rules and guidelines they tend to focus on teaching their children compliance rather than motivation
According to sociologists which group of families is more likely to use shaming rather than physical punishment as a social control?
Asian American families
Which group has the highest percentage of two parent households?
Graduates from some universities were having difficulty getting jobs. Grade inflation is one way schools have solved the problem what does this mean the universities did?
The universities raised at the grades of all students
What is latent function of educational institutions in the US?
Encouragement of teamwork
Which religious group type is so closely linked with the government and the dominant culture that belonging to the group as part of a persons a national identity?
Which societal problem may countries that experience rapid population growth in the coming decades experience according to the new Malthusians and conflict Theorists?
Competition over access to scarce resources to make calls political oppressed
Which problem associated with urban expansion is responsible for driving up the prices of home ownership and rent in poor areas ultimately forcing the original impoverish group out?
Where do we observe the highest rate of population growth?
In the least industrialized nations
The least industrial nations are in stage two of their democratic transition.. New Malthusian or anti-Malthusian?
The world population is following an exponential growth curve. New Malthusian or anti-Malthusian?
The current search and populated growth is temporary. New Malthusian or Anti-Malthusian?
We are approaching a time when food supplies will not meet the demands of the population new Malthusian or Anti-Malthusian?
How would a functionalist theory explain the complexity of American families in the earliest 21st century?
The complex patterns of family life permit greater economic and emotional security for individuals from diverse backgrounds
What is the purpose of having ethical standards in social research?
To protect human subjects
Which concept do sociologists used to describe a group whose values and goals are in opposition to mainstream culture?
What role does a culture's values play in social interactions?
To find a culture's standards for good and bad, beautiful and ugly, right and wrong
How does the workplace act as an agent of socialization?
It is an environment where one can acquire a new perspectives of the world.
Where does one first encounter gender socialization?
How might Charles Horton Cooley use the concept of "the looking glass self" to explain the influence of media on identity and behavior
Media affects the way that people perceive themselves because media reflects society's views of itself.
What is the "generalized other "refer to?
A way of looking and thinking about the development of oneself
How does ranking nations by their level of global industry or their ability to industrialize describe global stratification?
The greater the countries global industrialization of the more likely it is to be a first world country.
What is the primary cause of global stratification?
Which area of social life would be analyzed from the perspective of macro sociology?
How do sociologist describe the role of peers across the different stages of life?
They serve as agents of socialization
Name two concepts that reflect sociological ways of thinking about the development of self?
The "looking glass self" and the "generalized other".
How do educational disparities relate to economic disparities that cause global stratification?
Last industrial / post-industrialized countries do not have the economic resources to advance their educational systems because they owe to much money to the most industrialized nations they have to allocate too many resources toward servicing that debt.
Which three components make up Max Weber's ideas of social class
Property, prestige, and power (the three P's)
Name an example of the status inconsistency.
The teacher has a low income and a high level of education.
What is the primary determinant of social class according to Marx?
Whether a person is an owner or a worker
What is one way upward mobility of African-Americans affects the lifestyle of individuals?
It may cause a separation from their roots and significant others.
What do sociologist focus on as an explanation for why people are poor?
Native Americans were exposed to new diseases by white settlers and faced the destruction of their food supply from white settlers and soldiers. In some places, white people were paid a bounty if they killed a Native American. Which effect did this type of colonialism and racial discrimination have on U.S. society?
The contribution of Native Americans was reduced because their population was reduced by 95%.
Which outcome for students is produced by the combination of a student's culture and racial discrimination?
Latinos have the lowest percentage of high school completion.
How does the symbolic interactionist describe prejudice?
Prejudice is created by labels and is therefore created by selective perception.
What two things contribute to the gender pay gap in the US
-Women take off longer periods of work to rear children.
-Women are socialized into career paths that pay less.
Are groups whose values and related behaviors are so distinctive that they form their own entity, different from the dominant culture but still relatively compatible with. And example of this would be a motorcycle club
Groups whose values that their members in opposition to the dominant culture. They are usually associated with negative behaviors and perceived to be a threat to the dominant culture
What do symbols help us do?
Touch base with our cultures, and hint at our determination to find meaning in life
Name six groups of Symbols in cultures
Casual actions that are not strictly regulated by social norms.
Example: is a person blocking your way in a crowd or talking loudly at the bus stop.
Viewed as essential to culture's values.
Violations have negative actions. These Actions can affect our core values such as stealing rape murder or absent a tease
Reactions for following are not following cultural norms.
Positive - Expressing social approval
Negative - Expressing social disapproval( Court fines, raised fists, harsh words)
Looking glass self
A term coined by Charles Cooley referring to the process by which our self develops to internalizing others reactions to us
Name the three Looking Glass elements
- how we imagine we appear to those around us
- how we interpret others' reactions
- and how we develop a self-concept
Define cultural standards for the good the bad beautiful ugly and the right and wrong.
Explain "Mead and his 2 parts"
The self has two parts - the "I" and the "me, the I is the self as a subject and the me is a self as an object
Explain "Media stereotypes"
- Men are dominant and women should be subservient (prepared to obey others or less important)
- Men out number women in film television and published materials
Explain "Howard S Becker - Deviance"
It is not the act of self that makes a deviant it's society's reaction to the act
Explain "Erving Goffman - Deviance and Stigma"
When a person is believed to have deviated from his or her own cultures norms for members of the courtroom strongly disapprove this is also called social stigma
Explain "Edwin Sutherland - Differential Association"
Differential association, we learn to deviate or conform to the norms according to the different groups we associate with example fresh Prince of Bel Air
Explain "Walter reckless - Control Theory"
Control theory, inner controls and outer controls and how they pushed us to do.
Explain Functionalist perspective on deviance
Deviance illuminates moral boundaries and norms
Deviance promotes social unity
Deviance promotes social change
Explain "Robert Merton - Strain Theory"
Strain theory; 4 was s of anomie: which are innovation ritualism retreat as him rebellion..... manifest and latent functions
Explain The three social issue lenses of deviance
Functional (what is deviance function)
Symbolic (Who appears to be deviant)
Class conflict (is the conflict inherent in any class play society solely to blame for the deviance)
Why do conflict theorists argue that social stratification is universal?
The powerful use society's resources to their benefit and to oppress others.
Family close friends and fundamental in orienting the individual to his or her society they set the standards for behaviors values and goals
Explain "Max Weber - Bureaucracies"
Bureaucracies assignments flow down word and accountability. Flows upward. Where's the boss delegates work and the workers complete it. There's a clear division of labor
Iron law of Oligarchy (run by a few)
Believed in voluntary organizations corporations M bureaucracies were leaders often go distance from their members and convince them self the only the inner circle can't be trusted to make the groups important decisions, they're only run by a few members
Based on wealth and possessions and achievement, a person's class position at birth is based on the class of his or her parents but it allows for a certain degree of social mobility based on individual achievements example middle class lower-class working class
The caste system
A formation of social stratification based on birth into a particular group within cultures that maintain a cast system a person is born into the social status with no opportunity to move beyond it
The naturalization act of 1790
White Europeans obtain their citizenship when all white immigrants could finally apply for citizenship
Most Doctorates awarded
The functionalist perspective focuses on how the family contributes to the greater society. Incest taboo helps families avoid role confusion
Dysfunctions functions arise in what type of family?
Nuclear - Fewer people to support, emotional overload, and abuse
Harmful isolation from the extended family
Explain Conflict perspective - Family
Focuses on the struggle over power and authority between husband and wife a struggle over time and energy
Most men resist doing housework
Women typically work a second shift at home after a full eight hour day at work
Explain Symbolic interactionist perspective - Family
Proposal says that when the husband and wife have a similar earnings, power and responsibilities will be more equal
The man in a marriage. where the woman is employed. is more likely to share housework and childcare
When the woman earns more, the man is most likely to do housework
Explain Strain theory - Anomie
Anomie is the strain that people experience when they are blocked in their attempt to achieve goals
Strain theory - Innovation
Innovators are people who except the goals of society but use illegitimate means to reach them
Strain theory - Ritualism
Rituals are discouraged and have given up on achieving social goals
Strain theory - Retreatism
These people have rejected both cultural goals and institutionalized means of achieving them
Strain theory - Rebellion
People who seek to replace existing society goals with new goals
Strain theory - Deviance
Are products of society particularly when the acceptable means of achieving goals are unavailable to the individual or group
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