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Terms in this set (63)
_____ occurs when individuals that carry the alleles for a trait show a varying degree of severity of the phenotype.
Is principle of independent assortment monohybrid or dihybrid?
Is the principle of segregation monohybrid or dihybrid?
Is the principle of dominance monohybrid or dihybrid cross?
True or false? For Mendel's monohybrid crosses, the F2 plants were generated by self-pollinating the F1 offspring?
Mendel's principle of segregation is explained by the behavior of chromosomes during Meiosis. At which specific stage of meiosis does segregation occur?
Crossing over occurs primarily during this stage.
Synapsis occurs during this stage.
Sex determination in XY males (humans) is established at fertilization. Which of the following correctly describes the determining factor in the development of the sex organs (testes) in normal XY males.
The presence of the SRY gene.
Which of the following is a characteristic of an X-linked recessive trait?
The trait is predominantly observed in males.
Hemophilia is an X- linked recessive disorder. An unaffected woman and her normal husband have two children; one unaffected daughter and one son with hemophilia. What is the chance that their next child will have hemophilia.
X-inactivation will normally affect an X chromosome in..
The somatic cells of females.
The specific alleles of a gene determine whether or not a phenotype is observed. Which of the molecules below is most directly involved in the expression or occurrence of a phenotype?
You have crossed a homozygous mutant Chanticleer that has black feathers to a homozygous wild-type Chanticleer. The wild-type color for Chanticleers is of course Teal. All of the offspring have teal feathers. Which of the following statements about the wild-type allele is correct?
The wild-type is allele is haplosufficient.
Eukaryotic cells that possess two copies of each chromosome are said to exist in a _______ state.
The cell cycle can be divided between the non-dividing portion or interphase and M phase, where the cell is in the process of dividing into 2 daughter cells. What are all of the stages of the cell cycle that are part of interphase.
G2 phase, S phase, and G1 phase.
Which of the following experiments was most important in identifying the specific pairings between the bases in DNA?
Erwin Chargaff's analysis of DNA from a variety of species.
The polynucleotide strands of a double helical molecule are held together by:
non covalent hydrogen bonds.
In a polynucleotide strand, the nucleotide building blocks are connected by:
Covalent phosphodiester bonds.
For the double helical structure of DNA, what types of weak interactions contribute to the overall stability of the double helical DNA? What are all answers that are correct.
Hydrogen, Stacking of hydrophobic bases.
The property of the structure of DNA in which the nucleotide sequence of one strand determines the nucleotide sequence of the second strand is known as:
How is the initiation of replication different between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
Prokaryotic cells have a single origin of replication while eukaryotic cells have many origins.
All DNA polymerases require which of the following in order to synthesize a new polynucleotide strand. What all answers apply?
A primer, A template, and dNTPs.
Is the primary DNA replicating enzyme in bacteria.
DNA polymerase III
Removes supercoils ahead of the replication fork that result from the separation of the two parent strands.
Uses the energy in ATP to separate the parent DNA strands.
Replaces the RNA primer with deoxyribonucleotides?
DNA polymerase I
Prevents the separated parent strands from re-annealing?
Single Strand DNA binding proteins.
Synthesizes a short segment of RNA using one of the parent strands as a template.
Secures DNA polymerase to DNA and is required to insure replication is highly processive.
The process in which proteins are synthesized using the information in a molecule of RNA.
An inherited change in DNA.
An alternative version of a gene.
The bond that holds the two strands together in double helical DNA.
The property of a nucleic acid strand that results from the presence of different chemical groups on the two ends of the molecule.
The bond that joins individual nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA.
Who is the father of genetics?
The Mendelian model of inheritance proposes that discrete units of inheritance, passed down from each parent, determine an organism's characteristics or traits. This model is also known as the___
The enzyme telomerase prevents the shortening of chromosomes by:
extending the template strand of the lagging strand.
Which of the following is not a step in the polymerase chain reaction?
The sigma subunit of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase is essential for which of the following in transcription.
Recognition of the promoter sequence.
During eukaryotic transcription, which RNA polymerase will synthesize pre-mRNA transcripts.
RNA pol II.
Which type of functional RNA molecule is a component of the splicesome.
Which of the following answers below lists the correct order for the splicing of introns from pre-mRNAs.
5' splice site is cut, lariat intermediate is formed, 3' splice site is cut.
The two polynucleotide strands that form the DNA double helix are complementary. This means:
The sequence of bases in one strand determines the sequence of bases in the partner strand.
Which of the following statements about prokaryotic DNA replication is incorrect?
A single replication fork is generated from the origin of replication.
In a bacterial cell, which of the following is not required by all the DNA polymerases in order to synthesize a new polynucleotide strand.
Forms phosphodiester bonds between two adjacent Okazaki fragments.
The 5' to 3' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I serves what function during DNA replication.
Removes the primer.
_____ must be added to a PCR experiment to direct the polymerase where to begin synthesis.
Which of the following statements is true for transcription in BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?
The RNA polymerases adds ribonucleotides in the 5' to 3' direction.
You want to design a drug that prevents transcription of eukaryotic mRNAs but does not affect transcription of other RNAs. What enzyme would you target?
RNA pol II.
What modification of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs protects the molecule from degradation?
Addition of the 7-methyl guanosine cap, and addition of a long chain of adenine nucleotides to the 3' end.
Which of the following is a modification that occurs or may occur to eukaryotic RNA pre-mRNA molecules.
Addition of the 7-methyl guanosine cap to the 5' end, insertion of uracil containing nucleotides, addition of an amino acid to the 3' end, removal of introns.
What is the purpose of alternative splicing in eukaryotic cells?
Produce multiple polypeptide sequences from a single primary transcript.
Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for the presence of introns in eukaryotic genomes.
A means for initiating translation by eukaryotic ribosomes.
One type of RNA editing involves inserting uracil into edited mRNA with the assistance of which type of specialized RNA.
_____ traits are characteristics that are expressed in just one gender (male or female).
The distance between 2 genes located on the same chromosome can be determined by:
Test-crossing an individual that is heterozygous for both genes.
You perform a test cross on an organism that is heterozygous for genes A and B. If these genes are NOT linked, what would be the expected phenotypic ratio in the offspring?
1: 1: 1: 1.
Syntenic genes always exhibit genetic linkage and will never assort independently. True or false?
Which of the following combinations would result in the transformation of avirulent streptococcus pneumonia bacteria to virulent streptococcus?
Live rough bacteria + heat killed smooth bacteria.
The experiment performed by Oswald Avery identified the molecule that could transform harmless rough bacteria to pathogenic smooth bacteria. Which of the following statements about this experiment is correct?
The removal of DNA from the killed smooth bacteria prevented transformation.
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