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C961 Ethics In Technology Acts
Terms in this set (47)
acceptable use policy (AUP)
A document that stipulates restrictions and practices that a user must agree in order to use organizational computing and network resources.
advanced persistent threat (APT)
A network attack in which an intruder gains access to a network and stays there—undetected— with the intention of stealing data over a long period of time (weeks or even months).
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
An agreement of the World Trade Organization that requires member governments to ensure that intellectual property rights can be enforced under their laws and that penalties for infringement are tough enough to deter further violations.
Laws designed to reduce frivolous SLAPPs (strategic lawsuit against public participation [SLAPP], which is a lawsuit filed by corporations, government officials, and others against citizens and community groups who oppose them on matters of concern).
The moral corruption of people in power, which is often facilitated by a tendency for people to look the other way when their leaders act inappropriately.
A sophisticated threat that combines the features of a virus, worm, Trojan horse, and other malicious code into a single payload.
bring your own device (BYOD)
A business policy that permits, and in some cases, encourages employees to use their own mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, or laptops) to access company computing resources and applications, including email, corporate databases, the corporate intranet, and the Internet.
BSA | The Software Alliance (BSA)
A trade group that represent the world's largest software and hardware manufacturers.
CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart)
Software that generates and grades tests that humans can pass and all but the most sophisticated computer programs cannot.
Child Online Protection Act (COPA)
An act signed into law in 1998 with the aim of prohibiting the making of harmful material available to minors via the internet; the law was ultimately ruled largely unconstitutional.
Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
An act passed in 2000; it required federally financed schools and libraries to use some form of technological protection (such as an internet filter) to block computer access to obscene material, pornography, and anything else considered harmful to minors.
CIA security triad
Refers to confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
clinical decision support (CDS)
A process and a set of tools designed to enhance healthcare-related decision making through the use of clinical knowledge and patient-specific information to improve healthcare delivery.
Communications Decency Act (CDA)
Title V of the Telecommunications Act, it aimed at protecting children from pornography, including imposing $250,000 fines and prison terms of up to two years for the transmission of "indecent" material over the internet.
computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system
A system that enables physicians to place orders (for drugs, laboratory tests, radiology, physical therapy) electronically, with the orders transmitted directly to the recipient.
Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM)
A law that specifies that it is legal to spam, provided the messages meet a few basic requirements—spammers cannot disguise their identity by using a false return address, the email must include a label specifying that it is an ad or a solicitation, and the email must include a way for recipients to indicate that they do not want future mass mailings.
Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act
A law that specifies that it is legal to spam, provided the messages meet a few basic requirements spammers cannot disguise their identity by using a false return address, the email must include a label specifying that it is an ad or a solicitation, and the email must include a way for recipients to indicate that they do not want future mass mailings.
corporate social responsibility (CSR)
The concept that an organization should act ethically by taking responsibility for the impact of its actions on its shareholders, consumers, employees, community, environment, and suppliers.
Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016
An act passed in 2016 that amended the Economic Espionage Act to create a federal civil remedy for trade secret misappropriation.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
A large federal agency with more than 240,000 employees and a budget of almost $65 billion whose goal is to provide for a "safer, more secure America, which is resilient against terrorism and other potential threats."
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
Signed into law in 1998, the act addresses a number of copyright-related issues, with Title II of the act providing limitations on the liability of an Internet service provider for copyright infringement.
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack
An attack in which a malicious hacker takes over computers via the Internet and causes them to flood a target site with demands for data and other small tasks.
Economic Espionage Act (EEA) of 1996
An act passed in 1996 to help law enforcement agencies pursue economic espionage. It imposes penalties of up to $10 million and 15 years in prison for the theft of trade secrets.
Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)
A system that enables purchasers to evaluate, compare, and select electronic products based on a total of 51 environmental criteria.
fair use doctrine
A legal doctrine that allows portions of copyrighted materials to be used without permission under certain circumstances. Title 17, section 107, of the U.S. Code established the following four factors that courts should consider when deciding whether a particular use of copyrighted property is fair and can be allowed without penalty: 1) the purpose and character of the use (such as commercial use or nonprofit, educational purposes), 2) the nature of the copyrighted work, 3) the portion of the copyrighted work used in relation to the work as a whole, and 4) the effect of the use on the value of the copyrighted work.
False Claims Act
A law enacted during the U.S. Civil War to combat fraud by companies that sold supplies to the Union Army; also known as the Lincoln Law. See also qui tam.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
An act that makes it a crime to bribe a foreign official, a foreign political party official, or a candidate for foreign political office.
A temporary work visa granted by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USGIS) for people who work in specialty occupations jobs that require a four-year bachelor's degree in a specific field, or equivalent experience.
health information exchange (HIE)
The process of sharing patient-level electronic health information between different organizations.
Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act)
A program to incentivize physicians and hospitals to implement such systems. Under this act, increased Medicaid and Medicare reimbursements are made to doctors and hospitals that demonstrate "meaningful use" of electronic health record (EHR) technology.
intrusion detection system (IDS)
Software and/or hardware that monitors system and network resources and activities and notifies network security personnel when it detects network traffic that attempts to circumvent the security measures of a networked computer environment.
ISAE No. 3402
Developed to provide an international assurance standard for allowing public accountants to issue a report for use by user organizations and their auditors (user auditors) on the controls at a service organization that are likely to impact or be a part of the user organization's system of internal control over financial reporting. The international counterpart to SSAE No. 16. See also SSAE No. 16 audit report.
ISO 9001 family of standards
A set of standards written to serve as a guide to quality products, services, and management. It provides a set of standardized requirements for a quality management system.
John Doe lawsuit
A type of lawsuit that organizations may file in order to gain subpoena power in an effort to learn the identity of anonymous internet users who they believe have caused some form of harm to the organization through their postings.
Leahy-Smith America Invents Act
An act that changed the U.S. patent system so that the first person to file with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office will receive the patent, not necessarily the person who actually invented the item first.
A type of Trojan horse malware that executes when it is triggered by a specific event or at a predetermined time.
managed security service provider (MSSP)
A company that monitors, manages, and maintains computer and network security for other organizations.
next-generation firewall (NGFW)
A hardware- or software-based network security system that is able to detect and block sophisticated attacks by filtering network traffic dependent on the packet contents.
Prioritizing Resources and Organization for Intellectual Property (PRO-IP) Act of 2008
An act that created the position of Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator within the Executive Office of the President. It also increased trademark and copyright enforcement and substantially increased penalties for infringement.
A provision of the False Claims Act that allows a private citizen to file a suit in the name of the U.S. government, charging fraud by government contractors and other entities who receive or use government funds. See also False Claim Act.
Section 230 of the CDA
A section of the Communications Decency Act that provides immunity to an Internet service provider (ISP) that publishes user-generated content, as long as its actions do not rise to the level of a content provider.
Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA)
A trade group that represents the world's largest software and hardware manufacturers.
SSAE No. 16 audit report
An auditing standard issued by the Auditing Standards Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). It demonstrates that an outsourcing firm has effective internal controls in accordance with the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.
strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP)
A lawsuit filed by corporations, government officials, and others against citizens and community groups who oppose them on matters of concern. The lawsuit is typically without merit and is used to intimidate critics out of fear of the cost and effort associated with a major legal battle.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
A communications protocol or system of rules that ensures privacy between communicating applications and their users on the Internet.
U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT)
Established in 2003 to protect the nation's Internet infrastructure against cyberattacks, it serves as a clearinghouse for information on new viruses, worms, and other computer security topics.
Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA)
An act drafted in the 1970s to bring uniformity to all the United States in the area of trade secret law.
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