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MTEL ESL 54 Glossary
Terms/Concepts/definitions and theorists , if applicable
Terms in this set (76)
(Krashen) Learners develop language competence in a subconscious process.
Development of the 2nd language without detriment to the native tongue.
(Krashen) A metaphorical barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language even when appropriate input is available.
The relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes).
The formation of habits through repetition, practice and memorization of sentence patterns in isolation. (Behaviorism)
(B.F.Skinner) All learning whether verbal or non-verbal takes place through the establishment of habits.
(Cummins) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners.
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Development of academic language skills & explicit instruction for content and language. Scaffolded instruction. Explicit instruction of learning strategies and development of critical thinking to acquire language proficiency. Based on the cognitive approach. It teaches students to use their prior knowledge as a means to learning.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement. These skills usually take five to seven years to fully develop in Second language learners.
The alternating use of two languages at the word, phrase and sentence level with a complete break between languages in phonology
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Common Underlying Proficiency
(Cummins) Cognition and language fundamentals, once learned in the primary language, form basis for subsequent learning in any language. The two languages have a shared foundation, and competence in the primary language provides the basis for competence in the second language.
The ability to use language in a variety of settings.
(Krashen) A language that a learner can understand due to gestures, situations or prior information.
The additional meanings that a word or phrase has beyond its central meanings. It shows emotions or attitudes towards what that word refers to.
(Behaviorist) A comparison of the linguistic system of two languages.
Critical Period Hypothesis
(Chomsky) A proposal that there is a limited period during which language acquisition can occur.
The central or core meaning of a lexical item. Its conceptual meaning.
A variety of language which is spoken in one part of a country or by people belonging to a particular social class.
The ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a whole out of a series of utterances in logical cohesion.
Language majority and minority are schooled together
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes. A document that is used as a basis to develop curriculum and program for ELLs.
(1970) An informal method of teacher assessment that involves the teacher noting the particular kinds of errors a student makes when doing academic work to understand how learners acquire and process language.
It is a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards.Extrinsic motivation can be used in the language classroom as a way of pushing students beyond their current abilities.
A persistent lack of change in interlanguage patterns, even after extended exposure to or instruction in the target language.
A language function refers to the purpose for which speech or writing is being used for example, giving instructions or introducing ourselves.
In academic writing we use a range of specific functions in order to communicate ideas clearly.
These include: describing processes, comparing or contrasting things or ideas, and classifying objects or ideas.
Written or printed representation of a phoneme.
An approach to second language teaching characterized by the explicit teaching of grammar rules and the use of translation exercises.
Knowledge and rules, vocab, spelling and structure, essential to attaining communicative competence.
( Chomsky) A theory that human beings are born with mental structures that are designed specifically for the acquisition of language.
An interactive approach that emphasizes active student involvement. It involves talking about text w/ students to provide opportunities for using language to learn language and concepts. Language is expressed naturally and the content is meaningful and relevant to students.
Language acquisition is based both on learner's innate abilities and on opportunities to engage on conversations. Language development happens when the environment interacts with the child's innate capacity. (Vygotsky)
The language second language learners use that is not the native language and is not the target language.(A learner's developing second language knowledge)
Intrinsic motivation is a motivation to learn that comes from an internal force such as interest in language learning or the desire for furtherpersonal development in general.
Learning that is stimulated by the senses involving movement, smell,touch, visualization and interaction with people and objects in real space.
Language Acquisition Device
In Chomsky's theory an innate system that contains a universal grammar or set of rules common to all languages that permits children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they have learned enough words.
A conscious process that occurs when the objective is to learn about the language itself. (Krashen)
Language that is the official/one of the official languages used as medium of instruction in schools.
Thinking about one's own thinking
An understanding of the properties and function of language. that is, an understanding of language as language.
It is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities.
The monitor hypothesis asserts that a learner's learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.
The smallest meaningful unit in written language. It may be a word or part of a word.
Morphology is the study of morphemes which are words, word stems, and affixes, basically the unit of language one up from phonemes.
A theory that language is innate, biologically based. We are born with a capacity for language that is realized with minimal assistance from the environment. (Chomsky)
An approach where learners are initially exposed to meaningful language; they are not corrected or forced to speak until they feel ready to; there is no explicit focus on grammar.
Natural Order of Acquisition
Learners acquire grammatical structures in a predictable order.
About the age of 3 children follow the rules of grammar without making exceptions, Application of grammar rules without making appropriate exceptions.
The smallest unit of sounds in a language.
An exclusively oral language activity. Phonemic awareness refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.
Teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values
The way in which speech sounds form patterns., The study of the sound system of a language.
The study of the use of sentences and language in communication. The relationships between the contexts and the situations in which they are used.
The study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant.
The study of how language is acquired, perceived, understood, and produced.
A vstyle or way of using language that is typical or appropriate for a particular setting.
The study of meaning: the meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases or sentences.
A second language is introduced after the primary language is established.
Separate Underlying Proficiency
Proficiency in English is separate from proficiency in a primary language. Content and skills learned through the primary language do not transfer to English. Cummin's refutes this idea.
Sheltered English Immersion is defined as an English language acquisition process for young children in which nearly all classroom instruction is in English but with curriculum and presentation designed for children who are learning the language. Books and instructional materials are in English and all reading, writing, and subject matter are taught in English. Th terms "sheltered English immersion" and structured English immersion are often used interchangeably
A means for making content comprehensible for English learners while they are developing English proficiency. Sheltered classrooms integrate language and content while infusing sociocultural awareness.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. A scientifically validated model of sheltered instruction designed to make grade-level academic content understandable to ELLs.
The first stage of the process of second language acquisition, the preproduction stage, is often called the silent period because the CLD students may not communicate during this period except in nonverbal ways.
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
An explanation for knowledge and learning that is based on the assumption that all learning is first social then individual.
Leaving out elements of a sentence, for example, using the same form of a verb, regardless of person, number, tense.E.g: He go yesterday.
Two languages are acquired early in a person's development.
The study of language in relation to social factors (social class, educational level,age, sex,ethnic origin. The study of the many ways languages and society intersect.
The ability to repair discourse when discourse breaks down. Ex: Asking for clarification or repetition.
Partially or completly losing the first language as a second is acquired.
The structure of sentences and the rules that govern correctness. Word order, the study of how words combine to form sentences, and the rules which govern the formations of sentences.
Being proficient in native language facilitates being proficient in other languages being learned. Higher treshold divides the proficient bilingual from the partial bilingual. Lower treshold divides the partial bilingual from the limited bilingual
Total Physical Response (James Asher) Since commands can be made comprehensible at the early stages of language acquisition, this strategy lowered the affective filter and got the learners phisically and actively involved.
Two Way Bilingual Programs
Dual Language Instruction: Language majority and language minority children are taught via the minority language.
UG Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages. (Chomsky)
Zone of Proximal Development
ZPD The metaphorical "place"in which a learner is capable of a higher level of performance because there is support from interaction with an interlocutor. (Vygotsky)
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