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respiratory vocab


movement of air into out of lungs

external respiration

gas exchange btw air in lungs and blood

internal respiration

gas exchange btw blood and tissues

upper tract

nose, pharynx, larynx
1. warm, filter & humidify
2. conduction of air

lower tract

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & alveoli
1. conduction of air
2. gas exchange

respiratory functions

1. gas exchange
2. regulation of pH
3. voice production
4. olfaction
5. protection

pathway for air flow (10)

nose--->pharynx--->larynx--->trachea--->bronchi--->bronchioles--->terminal bronchioles--->respiratory bronchioles--->alveolar ducts--->alveoli

pleura functions

1. keep lungs inflated
2. reduce friction
3. causes suction


air in pleural space, possibly causing collapse of lung


collapse of scattered alveoli


diaphragm contracts & flattens
thoracic cavity volume increases
air pressure decreases


diaphragm relaxes & dome shape returns
thoracic cavity volume decreases
air pressure increases


ability of pulmonary tissue to stretch = inspiration
increase compliance = easier to stretch

high compliance

easy to stretch, low in elastance
get a lot of air in, but hard to get out
ex. emphysema

high elastance

hard to get air in, but easy to get out

elastance (elastic recoil)

tendency of pulmonary tissues to return to smaller size after being stretched = expiration

alveolar ventilation

how much air gets into alveoli.
tidal volume less anatomical dead space

partial pressure

pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture of gases
influences the movement of air into alveoli

factors influencing oxygen diffusion

1. oxygen pressure gradient
2. total functional surface area
3. alveolar ventilation = breath slowly
4. thickness of respiratory membrane

transport of carbons

1. dissolved in plasma
2. carbaminohemoglobin
3. biocarbonate

carbonic anhydrase

found in RBC, convert Co2 & H2O into carbonic acid, which converts to bicarbonate

tissue Po2


tissue CO2



w/o breathing


fast respiratory rate


low respiratory rate


difficulty breathing


excessive ventilation which reduces CO2 levels
cuases hypocapnia


inadequate ventilation which increase CO2 levels
causes hypercapnia


increase in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hypoventilation


decrease in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hyperventilation


lack of oxygenation in tissues
stimulates formation of RBCs but must have hemoglobin to transport the oxygen


decrease in PO2 levels in blood


decrease in pH

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