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34 terms

respiratory vocab

respiratory vocab
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ventilation
movement of air into out of lungs
external respiration
gas exchange btw air in lungs and blood
internal respiration
gas exchange btw blood and tissues
upper tract
nose, pharynx, larynx
functions:
1. warm, filter & humidify
2. conduction of air
lower tract
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & alveoli
functions:
1. conduction of air
2. gas exchange
respiratory functions
1. gas exchange
2. regulation of pH
3. voice production
4. olfaction
5. protection
pathway for air flow (10)
nose--->pharynx--->larynx--->trachea--->bronchi--->bronchioles--->terminal bronchioles--->respiratory bronchioles--->alveolar ducts--->alveoli
pleura functions
1. keep lungs inflated
2. reduce friction
3. causes suction
pneumothorax
air in pleural space, possibly causing collapse of lung
atelectasis
collapse of scattered alveoli
inspiration
diaphragm contracts & flattens
thoracic cavity volume increases
air pressure decreases
expiration
diaphragm relaxes & dome shape returns
thoracic cavity volume decreases
air pressure increases
compliance
ability of pulmonary tissue to stretch = inspiration
increase compliance = easier to stretch
high compliance
easy to stretch, low in elastance
get a lot of air in, but hard to get out
ex. emphysema
high elastance
hard to get air in, but easy to get out
elastance (elastic recoil)
tendency of pulmonary tissues to return to smaller size after being stretched = expiration
alveolar ventilation
how much air gets into alveoli.
tidal volume less anatomical dead space
partial pressure
pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture of gases
influences the movement of air into alveoli
factors influencing oxygen diffusion
1. oxygen pressure gradient
2. total functional surface area
3. alveolar ventilation = breath slowly
4. thickness of respiratory membrane
transport of carbons
1. dissolved in plasma
2. carbaminohemoglobin
3. biocarbonate
carbonic anhydrase
found in RBC, convert Co2 & H2O into carbonic acid, which converts to bicarbonate
tissue Po2
40mmHg
tissue CO2
46mmHg
apnea
w/o breathing
tachypnea
fast respiratory rate
bradypnea
low respiratory rate
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
hyperventilation
excessive ventilation which reduces CO2 levels
cuases hypocapnia
hypoventilation
inadequate ventilation which increase CO2 levels
causes hypercapnia
hypercapnia
increase in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hypoventilation
hypocapnia
decrease in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hyperventilation
hypoxia
lack of oxygenation in tissues
stimulates formation of RBCs but must have hemoglobin to transport the oxygen
hypoxemia
decrease in PO2 levels in blood
acidosis
decrease in pH