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Euro 52-57 MC Test
Terms in this set (36)
A series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.
Factory Act of 1802
Limited the number of hours worked by women and children, first in the textile industry, then later in all industries.
A British cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography, widely known for his theories about change in population.
"Iron Law of Wages"
Asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.
Leopold von Ranke
German historian who was able to implement the seminar teaching method in his classroom, and focused on archival research and analysis of historical documents.
A leading 19th-century German-American economist who developed the "National System" or what some would call today the National System of Innovation
French philosopher, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837.
French politician and historian. A socialist who favored reforms, he called for the creation of cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor.
A philosopher and women's rights advocate.
In the latter part of the 19th century, Russian art was dominated by the antithetical concepts of nationalism and internationalism, that is, art that was uniquely Russian, or looked back to earlier Slavic and Russian sources, and art that was connected to larger European movements and trends.
Polish national poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet.
Groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. Although their goals often had a patriotic and liberal focus, they lacked a clear immediate political agenda.
Duke de Berry
A title frequently created for junior members of the French royal family.
Following the return of King Louis XVIII of France to power, people suspected of having ties with the governments of the French Revolution or of Napoleon suffered arrest and execution.
Special type of student fraternities inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas.
In 1817 this was a meeting of Burschenschaft from around Germany. Students listened to rousing speeches by patriotic professors, marched about in Teutonic costumes and burned reactionary books.
1819, Metternich induced the German Confederation 1819, Metternich induced the German Confederation to issue these. Aimed at suppression of liberal and nationalist ideas in Germany:
1. Strict supervision of university teachers and students' organizations.
2. Strict censorship.
3. Dissolved Burschenschaft and equally nationalistic Gymnasium Clubs.
Decrees were enforced for many years and proved an effective short-term check on on liberals and nationalists.
Passed in 1815 in England by gentry/squires who controlled parliament. Raised the tariffs on imported grain (which flooded market after Napoleonic Wars) in order to protect their own interests. However, this created a hardship on wage-earners who had to buy bread - especially since there was a post-war economic depression. Corn Laws provoked demonstrations, riots and even an attack on the Prince Regent.
1819, in England, government troops fired on large crowd assembled in St. Peters Field in Manchester to hear speeches on parliamentary reform and repeal of the Corn Laws. 11 people were killed. Term "Peterloo" adopted to show stark contrast to glory and righteousness of Waterloo victory over Napoleon.
Ypsilanti's Greek Project
In 1821, a Greek Russian army officer plus followers went into Romania (part of Turkey) with same idea as Catherine's Greek Project.
Protocol of Troppau
A conference of the Quintuple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples of July 1820: "States, which have undergone a change of government due to revolution, the result of which threaten other states, ipso facto cease to be members of the European Alliance, and remain excluded from it until their situation gives guarantees for legal order and stability."
A Russian revolt in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
1. Suspended the liberty of the press
2. Appointed new, and what many considered reactionary, Conseillers d'Etat.
3. Dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies of France.
4. Reduced the number of deputies in future Chambers.
5. Summoned new electoral colleges for September of that year.
6. Withdrew the Deputies' right of amendment.
7. Excluded the commercial middle-class from future elections.
King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy.
Catholic Emancipation Act
A process in the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics.
Duke of Wellington
One of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century
Municipal Corporations Act
Part of the reform programme of the Whigs and followed the Reform Act 1832, which had abolished most of the rotten boroughs for parliamentary purposes.
Created in 1672 for Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley, a prominent politician in the Cabal then dominating the policies of King Charles II.
Factory Act of 1883
An attempt to establish a regular working day in the textile industry.
Mines Act of 1842
Prohibited all females and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines.
Ten Hours Act of 1847
Restricted the working hours of women and children in British factories to effectively 10 hours per day.
Anti-Corn Law League
A successful political movement aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners' interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages in pursuit of higher profit.
British Prime Minister almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865, beginning his parliamentary career as a Tory and concluding it as a Liberal.
A term for the political, economic, and social movements of the 19th century that originated in Manchester, England. Led by Richard Cobden and John Bright, it won a wide hearing for its argument that free trade would lead to a more equitable society, making essential products available to all.
A working-class movement for political reform in Britain between 1838 and 1848 which took its name from the People's Charter of 1838. A liberal movement.
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