Soc.Psych Chapter 2


Terms in this set (...)

Hindsight Bias
after people know that somethings occurred, they exaggerate how much they could have predicted it before it occured
Kitty Genovese
murder in the streets with plenty of witnesses. illustrates the bystander effect
Diffusion of responsibility/bystander effect
The larger the number of people who witness an emergency situation, the less likely anyone will be to intervene
Observational Method
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
archival analysis
in psychology and law, a method of data collection that involves examination of previously decided issues and cases and documents
correlational method
two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them
Three possible causal relationships between variables
A causes B. B Causes A. No Causal Relationship/Third variable.
experimental method
researcher systematically orchestrates events and allows experimenter to make causal inferences
internal validity
the degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
external validity
extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
psychological realism
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
Basic Dilemma of the Social Psychologist
The trade-off between internal and external validity in conducting research; it is very difficult to do one experiment that is both high in internal validity and generalizable to other situations and people
statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies
cross-cultural research
research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised