Soc.Psych Chapter 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Automatic thinking
Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
Schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Korsakov's Psychosis
everything encountered is inexplicable, confusing and unlike anything else you've ever know
Accessibility
the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
Priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Shariff & Norenzayan (2007)
experiment on priming with words and sentences and then dividing up money.
Judgmental Heuristics
mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
Marion (1995)
Doctors diagnosis based on availability heuristic
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
base rate information
information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
Bartlett (1932)
Suggested that schemas influence memory during memory reconstruction. Cattle transactions.
analytic thinking style
A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context; this type of thinking is common in Western cultures
holistic thinking style
a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other; this type of thinking is common in East Asian cultures
controlled thinking
thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
facilitated communication
An example of a failed consequence of pseudopsychology involving "facilitators" helping children with autism to communicate through pointing. But the facilitators were consciously and subconsciously creating the messages.
counterfactual thinking
mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
planning fallacy
the tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a project. ( i can totally finish this paper in one day)