Soc.Psych Chapter 4


Terms in this set (...)

affect blends
facial expressions in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
display rules
dictate what kinds of emotional expressions people are supposed to show. Particular to each culture
gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning
drawing meaningful conclusions about another person's personality or skills based on an extremely brief sample of behavior
primacy effect
other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence
belief perseverance
tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
internal attribution
attributing the cause of a person's behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition
external attribution
attributing the cause of a person's behavior to an external event or situation in the environment
covariation model
a theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether the behavior occurs
consensus information
how the person's behavior compares with other people's behavior
distinctiveness information
information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
perceptual salience
we pay attention to the person,think about them and tend to assume that they alone cause their behavior
Two-Step Attribution Process
1. make an internal attribution
2. adjust attribution by considering the situation
self-serving attributions
refer to people's tendency to take credit for their successes by making internal attributions for success and opposite for failures
belief in a just world
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
bias blind spot
the tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are
Western Culture and Social Perceptions
stress individual autonomy, internal attributions, analytic thinking style
Eastern Culture and Social Perceptions
Stress group autonomy, external attributions. holistic thinking style
Takahiko Masuda (2008)
Holistic vs Analytic thinking and facial reading. Seeing emotions in context
Hedden et al. (2008)
fMRI to examine where in the brain cultural experience predicts perceptual processing. American= cortical regions to pay attention to context. Asian = cortical regions to ignore context.
Goto et al. (2010,2013)
ERPs to measure brain activity bn cultures. even ethnic background effects processing.