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time period 4 vocabulary :)
Terms in this set (84)
Improved upon Copernicus's theory by showing that the planetary orbits were ellipses (ovals) not circles; wrote mathematical laws describing the movement of the planets
Scottish political economist and philosopher. He has become famous by his influential book The Wealth of Nations (talked about market economics) and his concept of the invisible hand (market forces in economy)
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa), thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia for later on (1450-1500)
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who in 1497-1498 led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, which led Portuguese to control the spice trade. This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and after successfully sail into the Indian Ocean trade network
Portuguese explorer who first organized the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, leading to an expedition that circumnavigated the world
7 years war
a global conflict, known in America as the French and Indian War, beginning when England declares war on France. Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America. Ended with the Treaty of Paris.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe, such as independence of German states from the Holy Roman Empire, who lost most of its power
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently.
Peace of Utrecht
A series of treaties, from 1713 to 1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire
French Protestants the were freed from persecution in France by The Edict of Nantes (1598) but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands fled to other countries, including America.
a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by other protestant reformers to reform the beliefs of catholics to create protestants
an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
An agreement between rulers and the people, the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others; government governs for the people and people keep them in check
English Renaissance statesman and philosopher, best known for his promotion of the scientific method. This paved the way for the sound of scientific knowledge. Paved a key role in shaping Modern Philosophy.
Joint Stock Company
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits.
science or art of making maps
a spanish conqueror of the Americas in the sixteenth century
they settled in the valley of Mexico. grew corn, engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region, worshipped many gods (polytheistic), believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky, so they practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a highly developed road system. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
A highly contagious viral disease responsible for killing vast numbers of Native Americans.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s; Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
The route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
the spread of African people across the Atlantic to many other parts of the world through the Atlantic slave trade
The attempt to reform the spiritual matters within the Catholic Church and stop the spread of Protestantism during the 1530
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture. Many colonized peoples were forced to assimilate to western culture.
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613
Dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917. Dynasty favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars
peasants, but not exactly slaves, and they predominantly made up the labor system. they served as agricultural workers or peasants bound to the land and legally dependent on their lord. they had their own homes, plots and livestocks, but they owed the lord labor, dues, and services. These services could be commuted to rent, but serfs remained chattels of the lord unless they were emancipated, or escaped. the practice of using serfs declined in Western Europe in the late medieval period, but persisted in parts of Eastern Europe until the nineteenth century.
the system of Islamic law, based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran
a monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak in the 15th Century CE; thought religion should be practiced by living in the world and coping with life's everyday problems
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals as well as the Ming Dynasty that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes.
He is very much like Ghengis Khan; a military leader who conquered Persia and the surrounding lands; his empire was decentralized with tribal leaders
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
1494-1566; the most distinguished sultan of the Ottoman Empire; he significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean, was a fair ruler, reconstructed the legal system of ottoman empire
a member of a dynasty that ruled Persia 1502-1736 and installed Shia rather than Sunni Islam as the state religion; rivals of the Ottomans, was active in military conquest
North African Muslim rulers who solved their budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
and infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, leading great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia among the Indian Ocean trade network
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire (not much of navigator lol)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Sultan Mehmed II
Ottoman ruler who sacked Constantinople, effectively ending the Byzantine empire. Renamed it Istanbul and then absorbed the lands of Byzantium.
founded 1603 when Tokugawa Leyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan; last feudal Japanese military government system
He founded the Mughal Empire in 1526 when he defeated the Lodi army and the Hindu warrior princes, he encouraged military buildup and arts, contributions: creation of a centralized government with ministries that controlled the provinces and introduction of a policy of religious toleration (unity with the Hindu princes), he introduced a new calendar, helped the poor, made an anti-alcohol campaign, and tried to improve the lives of women, was actually trying to raid in order to get other kingdom back.
3rd Mughal emperor, reigned from 1556-1605
King of Spain who agreed to finance Christopher Columbus's expedition to the Americas in 1492.
Queen of Spain who gave Columbus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
German monk and professor of theology at the university of Wittenberg and became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Peace at Augsburg
A 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Treaty of Tordellias
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
also known as the Society of Jesus, was founded as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism and to spread Catholicism; basically were missionaries that spread Christianity to many parts of the world.
the inventor of the printing press in the German town of Maintz.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Fast, highly maneuverable ships used by the Portuguese in the 15th century to sail the Atlantic Ocean and African Coast
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Period in the 1700s when philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically.
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval).
also known as Ivan the Great;
prince of Duchy of Moscow;
claimed descent from Rurik;
responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols (a.k.a. Tatars) after 1462;
took title of tsar (czar), or Caesar- equivalent of emperor
also known as Ivan the Terrible;
confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats);
continued policy of Russian expansion;
established contacts with western Europe commerce and trade
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
An artist, inventor, and scientist that painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.
1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace - espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion - reflect artist's strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion
Wrote "The Prince"- a book that described how to get power by absolute rule. Believed that the ends justified the means.
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe
Italian astronomer and mathematician who built his own telescope and found four moons revolving around Jupiter and was forced by the church court known as the Inquisition to swear that the geocentric theory was true.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Discovered the laws of gravity
The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King", revoked the Edict of Nantes forcing many Huguenots to migrate to America, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power.
The chief minister of Louis XII who ran the French government from 1624 to 1642. he was a political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe. He talked the Huguenots into attacking the Catholic Hapsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire. Also established a new bureaucratic class.
King of France from 1610 to 1642 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange. It was imposed by the Parliament's fear of turning England into Catholic.
30 Years War
The Thirty Years War occurred mainly in what is now Germany, and was a conflict driven by the schism between Catholicism and Protestantism. It caused widespread destruction and involved many of Europe's powers.
Edict of Nantes
Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship in 1598.
the massive fleet of ships sent by King Phillip II to fight the English. The English won, which weakened Spain and began England's rise to naval dominance.
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England; he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Council of Trent
meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant Reformers
Institution organized in 1478 by Fernando and Isabel of Spain to hunt out heretical or contrary opinions; subjects of persecution included Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and witches.
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