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Chapter Questions

About _____% of all mammal species are in the Order Rodentia.
The _______ are the only egg-laying mammals.
Wolverines belong to the same family as the _______.
Wilson and Reeder classify the marsupials into ______ orders.
______ of the following is an odd-toed ungulate.
Mammals are characterized by having ______ occipital condyles.
A Capuchin is a species of _______.
New World Monkey
Meerkats are indigenous to the ______ desert.
The Waterbuck is actually not found in Africa, but rather in southeast Asia.
Mammals all have _____ cervical vertebrae.
The ______ is a forest dwelling close relative of the Giraffe.
The classification scheme used by Wilson and Reeder for marsupials, partly emphasized structure of the _______.
______ are the most arboreal Old World Monkeys.
Colobus Monkeys
Otters belong to the same family as the _______.
The Dingo of Australia is actually a marsupial.
Mountain Lions and Florida Panthers are members of the same species.
About _____ of the Marsupials have a permanent pouch for carrying young.
There are _______ surviving species of Order Monotremata.
Mammals all have ____ dentition.
The classification scheme used by Wilson and Reeder for marsupials, partly emphasizes structure of the _______.
Orangutans are native to ________.
Southeast Asia
Odd-toed Ungulates typically have less efficient digestive systems than the Even-toed Ungulates.
The ______ is the sole member of its family.
The Ocelot is a species that is indigenous to _______.
Central America
________ of the following is an odd-toed ungulate.
Modern ______ are thought to be most like the first mammals.
Schmidt's Spot-nosed Guenon is a species of _________.
Old world monkeys
Mammals have ________ jaw articulation.
_______ is the habitat of the Hartebeast.
Short-Mid grassland
_________(family) families of Marsupials occur(s) in Australia.
_________ is an African antelope of tall grass.
Roan Antelope
There are no Bears in Africa.
Sloths are adapted for a diet of _________.
________ of the following is a hindgut forager.
Richard Kilitie found a relationship between frequency of forest fires and the _______ of fox squirrels.
amount of black fur
The Virginia Opossum arrived in North America in the ________.
________ of the following is an odd-toed ungulate.
_________ (family) families of Marsupials occur(s) in Africa.
_______ is a rocky semi-desert dweller.
dorcas gazelle
The ________ are insectivorous mammals limited to Madagascar.
_______ (family) families of Marsupials occur(s) in South America.
The ______ is a desert dwelling antelope in Africa.
Of the following, pigs are most closely related to _________.
The oldest species of Ardapithecus dates back more than _______ years.
5 million
The pollex is a technical term for _______.
the thumb
The _______ may be the oldest primate group.
The New World Monkey group apparently colonized the New World in the ________.
Neanderthals and modern humans did not coexist
Dryopithecus died out about _______ years ago.
8 million
An opposable thumb is seen in the ______.
One author hypothesized that Neanderthals may have had a gestation period of ________ months.
The ________ uses it specialized third digit to tap on wood to detect insects.
Aye Aye
________ is the oldest species in the genus Homo.
Homo floresiensis fossils were discovered in _________.
The Aye Aye is a secretive species of the Strepsirrhini native to the Philippines.
Lemurs reach their greatest species diversity in Madagascar
Neanderthals apparently were adapted for feeding on ___________.
large mammals
The Lorises belong to the ___________.
The Tarsiers today are limited in distribution to the New World topics.
The fossil known as "Lucy" was discovered in _________.
The most recent fossils for Neanderthals show that they died out roughly ______ years ago.
Sivapithecus fossils have been found mostly in _______.
The Gibbons are in the same family as humans
Members of the genus Paranthropus apparently became specialized for a diet of ______.
roots and tubers
Lemurs reach their greatest species diversity in Madagascar.
The Platyrrhini includes the New World monkeys and the ______.
The hallux is technical term for _______.
the big toe
The Haplorrhini are characterized by all species having _______.
dry noses
The Strepsirrhini broke off the main Primate lineage during the ______.
______ was the first species of the genus Paranthropus.
Dryopithecus was the fossil ape that inhabited __________.
Homo _____ gave rise to three lineages.
There are roughly _______ species of Marmosets.
Recent discoveries indicate that the limb structure of Dryopithecus was similar to that of modern _______.
________ is now considered to be the oldest member of the human tribe.
Ardipithecus kadabba
The gibbons belong to the _________.
Of the following groups only the _______ have a non-opposable thumb.
New World Monkeys
The Lemurs belong to the _______.
Sloths and anteaters are toothless.
Tortoises survive today in the indian ocean only on the island of _______.
McNabb argued that flightlessness was common in islands because of __________.
reduced energy expenditures
Widow birds are native to the _______ Zoogeographic Region.
There are some scattered grassland habitats in the Oriental Zoogeographic Region.
The Vassa is an ecological replacement for ________.
Species that occur in one place and are not known to occur anywhere else are said to be ______ to that area.
Numbats feed almost exclusively on_______.
ants and termites
The _______ was essentially a flightless pigeon in the Mascarene Islands.
Sloths and anteaters are toothless.
Atkinson argued that _______ were a major threat to Hawaiian forest birds.
________ is the first step in adaptive radiation.
increase in population size
The Vassa forages on _______.
On Madagascar the ______ is a tree climbing predatory species of the Old World weasel family Viverridae.
Extinction rates are higher where _______.
area is smaller
The Fairy Wrens are native to the _______ Zoogeographic Region.
The Elephant Bird was native to _________.
Tortoises filled the niche of large grazing herbivores _________.
on islands near the equator
About half of all oceanic islands were formed as a result of continental drift.
The flying foxes (Oder Dermoptera) are indigenous to the ________ Zoogeographic Region.
Pigeons and doves on islands have commonly shifted their diets toward feeding on more ________.
Darlington observed a relationship between species number and __________.
island area
The Wombats of Australia convergent with _______ of North America.
_________ is the main effect of introduced pigs on islands.
habitat destruction
_______ in the Australasian Zoogeographic Region fills the niche of the sloths in the Neotropics.
________ is an example of a group that has undergone adaptive radiation in islands.
darwin's finches
There are some scattered grassland habitats in the Oriental Zoogeographic Region.
The Nearctic Zoogeographic Region shares several groups of birds and mammals with the _______ Zoogeographic region
The Tropics of New Guinea have _______ species of native monkeys.
Zoogeographic regions are based chiefly on _______.
evolutionary history
The _______ on Guam has been implicated as the major agent for extinctions in forest birds.
Brown tree snake
The leaf birds are found in the _______ Zoogeographic Region.
________ came up with the notion of Zoogeographic Regions.
Flightless Cormorants are native to the ________ islands.
Islands, in general, are characterized by having ________.
high extinction rates
Golden moles are found in the _______ Zoogeographic Region.
In the 1970s, 12,000 ________ were introduced to Washington State from South America for sport hunting.
Elephant Shrews are found only in the _______ Zoogeographic Region.
In a completely nested pattern all the three species fragments would have __________.
the same 3 species
In the Piceance Basin, some bird species of the Pinyon-Juniper Woodland would not cross even the smallest cleared areas
Land Managers cleared pinyon-juniper woodland in the Piceance Basin using ________.
chaining and burning
Smaller fragments of habitat might not support a species because there is _______.
not enough food
The most vehicle cause black bear deaths in Florida have occurred in the __________ area.
Ocala National Forest
The Chief predators of small woodland birds in the Piceance Basin are ________.
Neotropical migrants are all passerine birds.
If the bird fauna in a series of fragments is nested then the mammals and flowering plants would also have to be nested.
Bolger and his team did not explicitly test the degree of isolation of a fragment age was important.
Bolger and his colleagues studied the distribution of _______ in chaparral fragments and plots.
Because of the impact of roads on certain species, the FWC and DOT _________.
built tunnels under some roads
In a completely nested fauna, the best strategy would be to protect ________.
as a single large area
The Piceance Basin is in _______.
western Colorado
Bolger and colleagues tested the notion that a pattern of nestedness might be due simply to ________.
The opposite extreme of a completely random distributional pattern is a completely ______ pattern.
Smaller fragments tend to have relatively more _______, which can increase predation pressure.
Bolger and his team found that the effect of reducing area of habitat was ________.
greater in fragments
Of the following, ______ is an example of a species that is endangered by roads in Florida.
black bear
Since the construction of tunnels under Alligator Alley there have been _______ panther mortalities due to vehicle collisions along this road.
The idea that corridors could serve as landscape linkages came from ________.
Between 1976 and 2004 about _______ bears were killed on Florida Roads.
Once the Pinyon-juniper woodland was cleared the areas were seeded with ______.
crested wheatgrass
Green Crabs were introduced to the United States from _______.
Green Crabs were first reported on the West Coast of the United States in ________.
The Eurasian Collared Dove came to the United States when it was intentionally introduced to Central Park in New York City.
Ladybird beetles were introduced to ______ to control a leaf scale insect that was destroying native cedar trees.
The only surviving wild population of one-humped camels occurs in ______.
Sea Lampreys invaded the Great Lakes following _______.
construction of canals
According to Moulton there are fewer examples of introductions to LDCs and MDCs.
________ were introduced to cane fields in Australia to control cane grubs.
cane toads
Burmese Pythons in Everglades National Park were likely introduced by ________.
private citizens
______ were introduced to Bermuda to control introduced Anolis lizards.
great kiskadees
Colonists from ______ brought House Sparrows to Hawaii.
According to Lever's book on naturalized mammals the highest number of mammal species has been introduced to _______.
New Zealand
Zebra Mussels may concentrate toxins in their tissues that ultimately poison certain species of ________.
diving ducks
The ______ is an example of a mammal introduced to control rate in cane fields on Caribbean Islands and in Hawaii.
small indian mongoose
The Hui Manu was an Acclimatization society in ________.
According to a book by Meshaka, there are _______ species of introduced geckos in Florida.
The Red-billed Leiothrix was introduced to Hawaii from _______.
As many as 38 species of passerine birds were released in Tahiti _________.
for aesthetic reasons
English colonists introduced _______ into Lake Victoria
Nile Perch
Zebra Mussels were fist seen in the US in _______ in 1988.
Lake St. Clair
The majority of introduced bird species are invasive and spread great distances from their point of introduction.
The _______ was introduced from Eurasia to the Great Lakes where it has been implicated in the formation of a 'Dead Zone' in Lake Erie.
Quagga Mussel
The _____ is a small (3 inches in length) introduced species that eats the same foods as several native North American crabs.
Asian Shore crab
According to an Ohio State University report _____ once were commonly introduced to the US in bunches of bananas.
According to Michael Huston, species from ______ seem to dominate the invasion process.
The Eurasian Collared Dove spread over Europe after it was introduced to ________.
__________ were introduced to Laysan Islands to produce a food supply for future visitors to the island.
guinea pigs
A Dinoflagellate species that causes red tides was introduced to ______ in ship's ballast.
According to Long's book on introduced birds the highest number of bird species has been introduced to ________.
As many as 11 species of deer have been introduced to _______ for recreational hunting.
new zealand
It is legal to hunt alligators in Florida
It is easier to farm species that are naturally ______ because they can be housed in groups.
The __________ is the most valuable part of a capybara carcass.
Captive populations can act as a reservoir for diseases that can spread to wild populations.
Long term studies show that alligator populations remain stable even when as many as 50% of nests are collected for ranching.
The reproductive efficiency of capybara is _________ that of cattle.
six times
Most examples of successful wildlife ranching operations are confined to ________ regions.
tropical and temperate savanna
If you were to farm wildlife, which of the following species would you choose as the most cost effective?
It is usually more cost effective to farm wildlife than to hunt it.
Flying foxes are threatened with extinction largely because they are considered a delicacy.
The Large Flying Fox is indigenous to Africa.
People in the world's tropical forests have little or no tradition of raising domestic livestock.
In tropical forest areas, all indications are that wildlife farming for meat is economically viable compared with farming domestic species.
Chinese Soft-shelled turtles have become pests in ______ where they were introduced.
Pacas are tropical ___________.
Frugivores like the _______ are popular as wild game but difficult and expensive to farm.
Alligators are farmed and ranched on a large scale in Florida and ____________.
Wildlife farming complicates law enforcement.
Scientists conducted domestication experiments on Paca in _________.
Wildlife ranching operations often combine the sale of hides and licenses to hunt with the sale of _____________.
Tropical forests are about ________ as productive as savannahs.
Flying Foxes are poor candidates for farming because they _________.
have low biological productivity
Capybara were officially classified as _______ by the Roman Catholic Church.
To be a good candidate for wildlife farming a species should have a ___________.
high reproductive output
____% of cane rate farmers in Ghana rely on wild stock for breeding animals.
One ton of rabbits can be produced in ___.
3 months
Some Venezuelan ranch owners are more inclined to protect wetlands because they support capybara.
Sustainable use of alligators generate $_______ per year.
60 million
In this day and age, in tropical forests wildlife is never an essential food source for humans.
______ is not a South American candidate species for farming.
helmeted guinea fowl
Captive populations can act as a reservoir for diseases that can spread to wild populations.
It takes ______ to produce one ton of cattle.
14 months
Most examples of successful wildlife ranching operations are confined to ______ regions.
tropical and temperate savanna
Wildlife farming complicates law enforcement
If you were to farm wildlife, which of the following species would you choose as the most cost effective?
Barking deer are candidate species in _____ for farming.
People in the world's tropical forests have little or no tradition of raising domestic livestock.
Long term studies show that alligator populations remain stable even when as many as 50% of nests are collected for ranching.
The "grass cutter" is a species of ______ indigenous to Africa.
Species most suitable for farming have some of the same characteristics as species that might become ______.
Human hunting increases the population of predators.
Sustainable hunting occurs when people hunt for the sole purpose of providing for themselves and their family.
Hunting can lower the age of first reproduction in a hunted species.
Rodents, Pangolins and Primates make up about _____ of the bushmeat taken in west and central Africa.
One of the major factors that cause a shift to non-sustainable hunting is when nomadic tribes become _______.
Species with ____ intrinsic rates of population increase are less resilient to harvest.
Communal nesting birds are especially vulnerable to harvest.
For the sake of our bushmeat discussion ____ kinds of hunting are defined.
A major difference between the European and North American system of wildlife management is that in Europe the wildlife belongs to the ________.
Leopold's classic treatise on game management argues for the use of natural resources without destroying the possibility of future generations using them.
In Indochina, many large animals have been almost eliminated by hunting.
According to Moulton, early hunters probably helped wide out _______ in New Zealand.
For tropical forest species the mortality from hunting is largely _____ to natural mortality.
Subsistence farming occurs when forest people sell the animals they kill to other people living in the same village.
______ if a wildlife trade monitoring network of the IUCN and the WWF.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the duiker populations has declined _____% due to subsistence hunting.
Leopold's model of resource use was based on management of upland game populations, habitat management and ______.
control of hunting
An unexpected consequence of the bushmeat trade is the threat to plant species that depend on animals for _______.
pollination and seed dispersal
Primate populations in Equatorial Guinea have been reduced by _____% in some areas.
Hunting _______ population densities of hunted species.
Many markets in Indochina now only sell birds, bats and frogs because ______.
large animals are nearly gone
According to the IUCN Red List human hunting is responsible for the decline of _____ of the mammals and birds threatened with extinction.
Species are more resilient to harvest if they _____.
can recolonize easily
The bushmeat trade in primates is causing concern because new strains of an HIV like virus are infecting people who eat duikers.
Changes in hunting technology radically affect hunting. Wire snares and shotguns allow hunters to be more ______ and less ______.
Species that are vulnerable to local extinction are usually _____.
Rodents, Pangolins and Primates make up about _____ of the bushmeat taken in west and central Africa.
Hunters often select for _____ and ______ species, which can change the composition of the biological community.
Granivorous and frugivorous
Levels of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about _____ percent in the last 150 years.
Increasing spring temperatures have caused the annual first dates of calling by frogs in New York to ______ by 10-13 days.
be earlier
Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it like a warm air blanket around earth.
The 2006 Stern Report estimates that it will cost ______ of global GDP to stabilize the effects of Global Warming.
According to a 2006 study by Camille Parmesan, the recent relatively mild climate change of .6 C has impacted _____ of all wild species.
As rising temperatures disrupt natural systems most species will be able to migrate or change their behavior.
According to Moulton, Global warming will be greatest in sub-arctic boreal forests of Siberia and North America.
Water birds of several species have increased in New York harbor.
Reducing carbon emissions can help to reduce ____.
global warming
Many species of cloud forest frogs have declined or gone extinct in Costa Rica.
Driving a car generates more greenhouse gas than almost anything you do.
Wading birds in Everglades National Park have declined due to bureaucratic forces inside the Park.
The global warming controversy is largely a/an ______ debate.
If no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, scientists predict that the planet's average temperature will increase by _____ in 50 years.
2-3 degrees C
The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The US agreed to join other nations in this effort.
Methods for conserving biodiversity include reducing carbon emissions.
Tortuguera was established as a protected area for ________.
sea turtles
The Dusky Seaside Sparrow originally occurred only in _______.
The effects of global warming will be felt most severely in developed countries.
At polar latitudes, declines in the abundance of _____ have affected a wide range of species from seabirds to marine mammals.
Some reptiles exhibit temperature sex determination.
The Concho River Water Snake is listed as ______.
Global warming will seriously impact Florida because it (has) _______.
lots of low lying areas.
Spring in Alaska now arrives 2 weeks earlier than in 1950.
Scientists are able to compare levels of greenhouse gases from thousands of years ago with present day levels by analyzing _______.
ice cores
Terborgh claims that _____ is(are) particularly harmful to tropical birds.
The major gas associated with global warming is _______.
The climate is changing uniformly across the globe.
In our example, people in the Philippines were over-harvesting _______.
sea horses
The US Forest Service is under the Department of __________.
Tortuguera is a protected area in _________.
Costa Rica
The _______ Act helped restore populations of water birds in New York harbor.
Clean Water
The majority of greenhouse gases are produced by _________.
burning fossil fuels
The USFWS _______ to help conserve Concho River Water Snakes.
created artificial riffles
In the USA, a rise in sea levels would have the greatest impact on which two states.
Louisiana and Florida
The US Park Service is an agency under the Department of _______.
Cathi Campbell found that humans were harvesting large numbers of Green Sea Turtles off the coast of _______.
Most observations of climate change responses in plants and animals have involved alterations in species' phenologies, otherwise known as ______.
timing of events
Scientists have concluded that human consumption of _______ is the major force driving global warming.
fossil fuels
The temperature of the _____ determines the sex of alligator hatchlings.
nest cavity
_______ is a group of bird species that is severely impacted by size of protected areas.
forest interior nesters
Recent climate trends in mountainous areas in Central and South America have produced optimal conditions for _______ which is the likely cause of amphibian extinctions.
chytrid fungus
Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it like a warm air blanket around earth.
In the US each person is responsible for releasing approximately _____ tons of CO2 emissions compared with an average _____ tons per person throughout the rest of the world.
22 and 6
The cue for pied flycatchers to begin their migration from Africa to northern Europe is not temperature but _____.
day length
The _____ was the last species of bird described in the US.
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow
Reintroduction is not a viable option for the majority of species threatened with extinction.
In the 1960s, the dominant item in zoo news was _________.
baby animals
Capybaras attain their greatest density (number per area) in the ________.
Venezuelan Ilano
Penguins, koalas, giant pandas, apes, monkeys and meercats all score high on the attractiveness scale because they often sit upright or walk on two limbs.
Every year over 100 million people visit North American zoos.
The sound-huntig technique of the serval is so well developed that these cats can't hunt in windy weather.
With proper controls, harvesting of capybara can be a valuable conservation tool because it encourages ranchers to preserve the wetland habitats
Impoverished herders in many countries are subsidizing snow leopard conservation by inadvertently providing the cats with a ready source of food- their own livestock.
Humans find flattened faces much more appealing than long pointed snouts, probably because our own faces are flattened.
Most grazers can only be harvested at 10%, but the capybara's high reproductive rate allows them to be harvested at a rate of _____%.
Sloths, iguanas and possibly other folivores use _______ to raise their body temperature to normal.
solar heat
Flying requires an enormous amount of energy so most birds that feed on leaves _________.
glide or are flightless
The Species Survival Plan (SSP) is a ________.
computerized mating system for zoo animals
Snow leopards are often forced to kill domestic livestock because local people shoot and trap the animals that make up their natural prey.
Capybara females produce five times more offspring, in terms of weight, than do other larger grazers.
Leaf eaters typically produce just one small offspring which grows very slowly and is dependent on its mother for a long time.
The demands of living on low-energy food means that most folivores must conserve energy wherever possible, and this often translates to being very slow.
Hoatzins and kakapos are both folivorous _______.
Harp seals are an endangered species.
One of the most successful reintroduction programs involved the ________.
Arabian oryx
________ are the keystone species in many New World Species
Capybara are native to _______.
South America
A ger is a _________.
round felt tent
Long legs, a long neck and large ears are adaptation of both the serval and the maned wolf for ________.
pinpointing the location of rodents in tall grass.
Capybara are more efficient at converting grass to protein than are sheep or rabbits
Scientists argue that many species thought to be keystone species to their ecosystem seem to be ________.
unobtrusive, rare and little known
Which two species are HIGHLY dependent on the gopher tortoise burrow to survive?
gopher frog and florida mouse
A large head, large eyes, a rounded body and short stubby limbs trigger a human urge to _______.
nurture and protect
According to evolutionary biologist Stephen J. Gould, "We are fooled by an evolved response to our own babies, and we transfer our reaction to the same set of features in other animals."
William Conway estimated that the zoo ark would have room for _______ of the 20,000 plus mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians that would need our attention.
less than 1,000
Low survival rates of young, birth defects, and increased susceptibility to diseases in zoo animals are attributed to ________.
One of the least successful reintroduction programs involved the _______.
European barn owl
According to William Conway, "zoo propagation can probably aid in the survival of _______% or more of all the terrestrial vertebrates likely to become extinct in the next century."
Dr. Ben Beck reported that of 146 attempted reintroductions, only ___% have been judged to be successful.
For any animal reintroduction program, the FIRST factor to consider is whether ________.
the original causes of the animals's decline are stilll present
Most serious leaf-eaters have leaf-digesting bacteria in their gut.
Golden lion tamarins are a species of _______.
The tortoise burrow provides a refuge for various species of amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
In Africa, South America and Asia, heavy, hook like claws, a long sticky tongue and rudimentary teeth are standard characteristics of species that exploit the ______ niche.
Animals that have already produced enough young or those that are hybrids between subspecies cannot be used for Species Survival Plan (SSP) breeding are considered ________.
The duplication of body shapes and behaviors in unrelated animals is called _____.
convergent evolution
After laying her clutch of eggs the females gopher tortoise will need ______ to build enough nutritional reserves to produce another clutch.
2 years
Orangutans are native to ________.
Borneo and Sumatra
In the United States, one of the first attempts to reintroduce an animal to the wild involved the _______.
plains bison
Animals on three continents (hedgehogs, porcupines, and tenrecs) have independently evolved spines as a strategy to avoid being eaten.
A specialized stomach, slow locomotion, and sleeping a lot are a leaf-eaters adaptions to _____.
a low energy diet
Captive-bred animals may not be the best candidates for reintroduction because they often lack the skills needed to survive in the wild.
Fish in Africa and South America have independently evolved parallel solutions to living in silt laden rivers. They use _______ to communicate and hunt.
electrical signals
Experts recommended stopping the reintroduction of Orangutans rescued from the illegal pet trade because ______.
the habitat was already full
What do the black-footed ferret, red wolf, Spix macaw and Pere David's deer have in common?
cannot survive without captive breeding
60% of all potential snow leopard habitat is in _______.
Critics of the capybara harvest charge that _________.
the method of killing is unnecessarily cruel
Koalas and sloths save energy by spending up to _______ hours a day motionless.
Other characteristics besides cuteness can make a species more attractive, ______, for instances, makes an animal more endearing.
large size
An adult snow leopard is roughly the size of a __________.
golden retriever
________ are one of the most evocative features of a "cute" animal.
large eyes
Along with physical defenses life spines, hairs and lignin, leaves also produce _________ to discourage leaf-eaters.
Bananas, cashews, mangoes and durian all rely on ___________ for pollination.
In Mongolia, low-cost incentives used to persuade villagers to protect wildlife and improve their animal husbandry involved providing people with ______.
children's clothes and flour
Animal displays emphasizing _______ will continue to be the centerpiece of zoo programs.