PSYCHOLOGY CCE REVIEW 2018

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Why is scientific research applied to Psychology rather than simply using "common sense" to evaluate?
it helps evaluate uncertainties using various methods that produce data.
Which of the following research methods allows for the collection of large amounts of data efficiently through questionnaires or similar formats?
Survey
How does using the Naturalistic Observation method help reduce participant bias?
By avoiding influencing participants' behavior with the observer's presence
What is the correlation if both variables increase together during a scientific study?
positive
What is the correlation if two variables change in opposite directions?
negative
What is the extent to which a test yields consistent results.
Reliability
Which division of the nervous system directly controls voluntary movement?
Somatic
What is the primary function of the myelin sheath?
Protects the axon and speeds up transmission
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles of which part of the neuron?
Axon Terminal
In which part of a neuron are the neurotransmitters stored?
Axon Terminal
In most people, language functions are primarily located in which brain hemisphere?
Left
One issue with personality testing is a person will often receive different results on the same personality test when its taken at different times of the day, week, month, or year. What does the personality test lack in this scenario?
Reliability
Which brain structure allows the right and left hemispheres to communicate with each other?
Corpus Callosum
What is one way to study the differences between the two brain hemispheres?
Study people who have a surgically separated corpus callosum.
By definition, if a personality test measures what it intends to measure then the test is considered _________
valid
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is responsible for most advanced cognitive abilities, such as decision-making and planning?
frontal
What part of the cerebral cortex would you use to raise your left hand?
Right motor cortex
What part of the neuron is the first to receive neurotransmitters from other neurons?
Dendrite
Which structure in the brain regulates basic life-support functions, such as heartbeat and breathing?
Medulla
Suffering damage to the _________ lobe of the cerebral cortex might result in you having trouble processing sound.
temporal
Patients who have suffered an impaired language ability in one hemisphere of the brain have experienced the transfer of language function to the other hemisphere. What term describes this unique ability of the brain?
Plasticity
Which part of the neuron increases the speed of neural transmissions?
Myelin sheath
Neurotransmitters travel through the nervous system as hormones travel through what?
Endocrine system
During class, Samantha felt faint. At the nurse's station, she discovered her blood sugar was low. Which gland was affected?
pancreatic
What is considered the "master gland" of the endocrine system?
pituitary
Which gland in the endocrine system directly regulates metabolism?
thyroid
Which endocrine system glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine?
adrenal
What is sensation?
Process by which our sensory receptors take in stimulus energy from our environment.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is responsible for visual processing?
occipital
According to Kubler-Ross, a dying patient in the _________ phase is attempting to ease anxiety and fear whereas the patient in the acceptance stage _________
denial / experiences calm and peace
What stage of prenatal development includes the formation of most of the major organs?
embryo
Which motor and physical development stage would a child accomplish last?
walking on his /her own
What is the automatic response called of a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for food?
rooting reflex
What connection did Abby make when she learned that "dog" has four legs and is furry?
schema
What is an example of secondary development sex characteristics in puberty?
Males growing facial hair
Which psychological perspective focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations?
sociocultural
Billy is hanging out with a bunch of his friends who think it is fun to jeer and make fun of girls who walk by. Billy thinks of how his sisters would feel if they were the girls and doesn't want to join. Sadly, he decides to join with his friends anyway. Why?
conformity
When Dan was five, he watched his father throw items and yell at everyone around him when he became angry.
If Dan grows up to be aggressive adult, which factor could have influenced his behavior based on the above example?
learning
Which of the following is not a key to attraction?
Revealing your thoughts and feelings to someone
Kevin suffers a series of terrible calamities. His friend suggests that Kevin must have done something terrible to deserve his misfortunes. The idea that Kevin is suffering bad events because he has done bad things is an example of what?
just-world phenomenon
While your mother is lecturing about cleaning your room, you lose concentration. Suddenly you hear the significant words, "no car keys" and "are you listening to me?" You are able to repeat the last few things she said before mentioning car keys.
What explains this phenomenon?
Words stored in echoic memory will last for up to 3 to 4 seconds, so you can still recall her words.
Students often have better recall of information when taking a course spanning an entire 18 week semester rather than an intense 3 week long online course.
What is the explanation for this difference in performance?
the spacing effect
Which structure in the brain would have difficulty creating and storing new memories if it was damaged?
hippocampus
Mike texts a list of 10 grocery items for Kathy to bring home from the store. Kathy accidentally deletes the text after reading through the list once, so she attempts to write down the items from memory. Which items is she most likely to forget?
items in the middle of the list
What is "psychologically abnormal behavior"?
harmful behaviors that are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical
Which disorder involves a person separating from their previous memories, thoughts and feelings, to avoid reliving a past trauma?
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Repeating a name over and over again in your head, so as to help you remember it, will most likely result in what type of encoding?
Shallow (or surface) processing
True of False: In ages past, mentally ill people were thought to be geniuses.
False
As her psychology teacher is lecturing, Savannah is thinking about competing in a swim meet later that day. Where are her current thoughts being processed?
working memory
What is the concept called that mental diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and often cured?
medical model
How would you use chunking to deeply encode a grocery list consisting of 25 items?
Separate the list into related groups such as produce, dairy, and dry goods.
John is embarrassed because he momentarily fails to remember the name of a good friend. His poor memory is most likely the result of the failure of what?
retrieval
True or False:
Malicious intent is a criteria in classifying a psychological disorder.
False
What are personality disorders?
lasting, rigid behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning in individuals
Which type of memory is responsible for remembering routine tasks such as riding a bike?
Implicit
Shallow encoding is to short-term (working) memory as Deep encoding is to _________
long-term memory
Which type of scan would be most helpful in detecting enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia?
MRI
What kind of statistics use numbers to summarize and describe data?
Descriptive
A 2 year-old would struggle with which question according to Erikson's stage of social development?
Can I do this myself?
The letters Y, M, O, M, R, E are presented. A student remembers them by rearranging the letters to spell the word "memory." What is this example?
chunking
What is the best explanation for the excerpt below?

Walking into the bedroom, you think, "I need to get my backpack in the garage." When you reach the garage, you forget what you came in there for. As you return to the bedroom, you suddenly realize "backpack!"
context effects
According to Sigmund Freud, which process is involved in forgetting painful experiences?
repression
Which brain structure is responsible for directing and sorting incoming sensory signals to the cortex?
thalamus
Wearing old and outdated clothes might not be considered a symptom of a psychological disorder, because although it is ____________, it is not necessarily _______________.
atypical / insane
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned.
What memory does this illustrates?
implicit
What is sensation?
the process of receiving information from the senses
Impulses that are received by receptor cells of the retina are transmitted by the _________________________________ , to the brain, in the process of visual transduction.
optic nerve
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