34 terms

Genetics and Heredity

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What kind of cells are created during meiosis in humans?
1. Sex cells
How many chromosomes are in sex cells?
23 pairs of chromosomes
phenotype
An organism's appearance (what you see: hair color, height, eye color )
genotype
The genetic make-up of an organism- the alleles that are present for a trait. (Hh or AA)
In sexual reproduction, where do traits come from?
3. Traits come from both parents
How do alleles affect traits? How many alleles do you inherit?
Depends whether an allele is dominant or recessive. Two alleles are inherited for a trait, one from each parent.
What are homologous chromosomes?
when alleles from both parents are the same.
Do physical changes affect an organism's genes or DNA? Why or why not?
Physical changes do not affect an organism's genes because it does not affect the DNA and how the genes are expressed.
Where are genes located?
Genes are located on one the 23 chromosomes
What were the results of Mendel's pea plant experiments? What did Mendel discover about recessive traits
Recessive traits can only be seen in the organism if both alleles are recessive. One set of instructions for an inherited trait. Recessive trait comes back in 2nd generation
What carries the genes that determine sex?
Sex chromosomes
How do cells divide in asexual reproduction?
Mitosis
How are offspring that are different from their parents produced?
Sexual reproduction
What are alleles?
Different forms of a gene
What are genes?
One set of instructions for an inherited trait.
What is heredity?
The passing of genetic material from parent to offspring.
What is a trait?
The different forms of characteristics are called trait.
Homozygous
When alleles from both parents are the same Ex. (HH) or (hh)
Heterozygous
When alleles from parents are different Ex. (Hh)
Which nitrogen base in RNA is NOT part of DNA?
Uracil
Where does protein synthesis take place?
In the cytoplasm
What does codominance mean in genetics?
When both alleles are expressed simultaneously in the trait
What are chromosomes made up of?
DNA and protein
The sub-units that DNA is made of?
22. Nucleotides
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is _________________________
homozygous
A heterozygous organism has
two different alleles for a trait.
Suppose a white-furred rabbit breeds with a black-furred rabbit and all of their offspring have a phenotype of gray fur. What does the gene for fur color in rabbits appear to be an example of?
Incomplete dominance
The four bases are?
b. adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
Which bases always pair together on the rungs of the ladder?
28. Adenine --Thymine
Guanine --Cytosine
What causes sex linked disorders?
Genetic mutations
What is a feature that has different forms in a population?
Characteristic
How are copies of DNA made?
DNA strand unwind and complementary nucleotide bases are added
F1 generation
The first generation offspring
F2 generation
The second generation offspring
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