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AP HUGE Unit 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (58)
the term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovation and specialization in late eighteenth europe
location theory/industrial location theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing area are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von thunen model would be a leading example.
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Weber's model/least cost theory/least-cost location
model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments determined by the minimization of three capital expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the input.
In the production of a good where one raw material is heavier than the other; the industrial production will be closer to the heavier item (ex. Potato chips made with potatoes and oil/salt)
a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or creating costs due to congestion and competition.
theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggest competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to located adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
a region with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized (India, Japan, Korea, Poland)
A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
Includes South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, each of which is currently experiencing rapid economic growth as a result of its industrial base and the exporting of items to areas like the United States and Europe.
foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
when two regions specifically satisfy each other's needs through exchange of raw materials and or finished goods
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks or perhaps smaller river boats for inland distribution.
a highly organized and specialized system organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption.
production such as agriculture and textiles required more work directly from the worker. Most of the clothes we wore had to be handmade.
world economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass-produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the twentieth century
multinational companies/transnational corporations
Companies that operate in a number of different countries. Because of their economic power, they can at times dictate prices paid to producers in developing countries.
Areas of low-rise office buildings that are located on the edges of communities where land is inexpensive and near residential areas. Designed for cars with small and curvy roads. Often have park-like, spacious lawns, sidewalks, walking trails, and sitting areas.
Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time
costs that change directly with the amount of production(ex. energy supply and labor costs)
An activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant.
a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
method of inventory made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed.
global division of labor/international division of labor
phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems.
a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operation. The goods manufactured in these export zones are primarily destined for the global market.
industry with no allegiance to any country, can locate anywhere in the world typically for tax purposes.
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly industrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
with reference to production, to turn over in part of in tota, to a third party
with reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country
centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high technology corridor is sometimes established.
a property which has the presence or potential to be a hazardous waste, pollutant or contaminant.
Are all the other countries, today often used to roughly describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
with respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.
Gross national product, GNP
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It included all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country.
Gross domestic product, GDP
the total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
Gross national income, GNI
calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country
the legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government gross national product
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government, and is not included in that government's gross national product
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
technology transfer process
The amount of time that it takes a new technology to leave the laboratory and arrive on shelves for citizens to purchase
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics: basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
a structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangement that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his threepties structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developing world.
A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
export process zones (EPZs)
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semiperiphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangement to attract foreign trade and investment.
the term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low wage workers in the primarily foreign owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
special economic zones (SEZ)
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulation are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
islands of development
place built by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentration of paying jobs and infrastructure.
nongovernmental organizations (NGO)
international organization that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spreading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses
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