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Chemistry Bonding Test
Terms in this set (46)
# of atoms bonded
# of lone pairs
Characteristics of ionic bonds
electrically conductive when molten or dissolved, water soluble, brittle, crystalline, electrically neutral as solids, solids have specific crystalline Lattice structure, high melting temperature, strong bonds
How to recognize ionic bonds
usually start with metals, contain 1 kind of cation and 1 kind of anion, formulas are formula units expressing subscripts in lowest ratio
Ionic bonds result from
electrostatic attraction of opposing charged ions due to transferal of electrons between atoms
Characteristics of metallic bonds
composed only of metals, excellent electrical conductivity in all states, usually solid at room temperatures, display ductility and malleability (bend), have luster, have high bond strength (but less than ionic), relatively high melting temperature
Metallic bonds result from
free metal cations attract to a pool of free moving delocalized valence electrons; the bond is electrostatic in nature
Characteristics of covalent bonds
composed solely of non-metals, poor water solubility, solids, liquids and gases at room temperature, poor or no electrical conductivity, low melting temperature (< 300 C), bond strength increases as number of shared pairs of electrons increases, but not as strong as ionic or metallic
Covalent bonds result from
sharing of electron pairs between 2 non-metallic atoms
Polar Covalent bonded compounds
display good water solubility and measurable electrical conductivity because they have distorted electron clouds that mimic electrical charge; when in gas or liquid state the charged parts can move
Bond Strength (H-L)
Ionic, Metallic, Covalent
Metallic, Ionic (when molten or dissolved), Covalent
Metallic, Covalent, Ionic
Melting Temperatures (H-L)
Ionic, Metallic, Covalent
Is it electrically conductive?
It must have charged particles that can move.
0 -.3 electronegativity difference
.3 - 1.7 electronegativity difference
> 1.7 electronegativity difference
electrons involved in the formation of bonds
bonding rule requiring 8 valence electrons for each atom
metals form this kind of positively charged ion
negative ion formed by non-metals
process in which atoms gain/lose electrons to achieve an octet
measure of the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to it
separation of electric charge leading to a molecule
formed from electrostatic attraction of opposite ions
sharing of valence electrons creates this
attraction of metal cations to free moving sea of valence electrons
lasting attraction between ions that enables the formation of compounds
as you move L-R on a periodic table
the energy goes up (Periodic Trend)
as you move down a group on a periodic table
the energy goes down (Periodic Trend)
hold molecules of compounds to each other and are responsible for the state matter takes at a given temperature
(bonds) hold atoms within a compound together
London Dispersion Forces
occur between non-polar molecules
occur between polar molecules
strongest I.M.F; Hydrogen bonded to either N, O, or F
Why do metallic compounds bend when struck while ionic breaks?
Metallic compounds don't have a rigid alignment of + and - particles like ionic do so when they are struck, the cations and anions can flow past one another. Because of ionic compounds' specific crystalline structure, it gets misaligned when struck placing like charged ions next to each other causing repulsion.
Why are ionic compounds only conductive when molten or dissolved?
In order to be electrically conductive, charged particles must be present and mobile. Charged ionic particles are able to move when they are molten/dissolved leading them to be able to be electrically conductive.
Why do covalent compounds have a low melting temperature compared to ionic?
Intermolecular forces are weaker against covalent bonds than ionic.
Water is a polar molecule in which one atom has more attraction for the shared electrons. Which atom is most likely the atoms that has the greatest attractivity for the electrons? Why?
Oxygen because the electronegativity difference between H and O makes it polar. The bigger the elctronegativity difference, the more electrons attracted.
The larger the difference in electronegativity...
the more likely that the bond is ionic.
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