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Health Admin Chapter 6- Organizing: Groups and Teams
Terms in this set (40)
social interaction between 2 or more people in a stable arrangement who have common goals and perceive themselves as a group
special group with specific complementary abilities, strong commitments to common goals, and shared accountability for goal achievement
a formal group that is established with an official mandate, is linked to the organizational hierarchy, and is accountable for its mandate
-a group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective
-all teams are groups but not all groups are teams
-teams are often difficult to form
-it takes time for members to learn how to work together
Teams vs. Groups
two characteristics that distinguish the two:
-intensity with which team members work together
-presence of a specific, overriding team goal or objectives
Advantage of Synergy
people working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately
Purpose of Groups
-combine and coordinate work
-enable workers to grow, try new roles, and develop professionally; exchange skills, knowledge, and learning)
-improve problem solving and decision making
-obtain input and representation of stakeholders, interest groups, and constituents
members of groups, and particularly teams...
are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals
-team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone
-team members can see the effect of their contribution to achieving team and organizational goals
-teams provide needed social interaction and help employees cope with work-related stressors
Why are groups common in HCOs?
1. Healthcare is multidisciplinary.
-Involves medicine, nursing, pharmacy, occupational therapy, management, informatics, and dozens of other disciplines
2. Many HCOs are day and night.
-Many are open 24/7/365
-Require new shifts of workers throughout the day
How managers create good groups--create effective structures
4. relation to organizational hierarchy
How managers create good groups--create effective processes
3. communicating and interacting
4. decision making
Structure 1: Create Purpose
Each group must have a clear purpose (sometimes called a charge or mandate).
- Guides the group
- Helps the group stay focused
- Helps measure progress and achievement
Structure 2: Create Size
big size, small size
Structure 3: Create Membership
-who can provide the knowledge, skills, attitudes the group needs?
-who can perform helpful task and maintenance roles and avoid harmful personal roles
-who works well with people and in groups (or could after training and and coaching)?
-who has sufficient time for this group while still doing his/her regular job?
-who might grow professionally from group membership?
-who can represent certain stakeholders, constituents, and work groups?
Roles in Groups
-task roles: help the group achieve its tasks, goals, purpose (good)
-maintenance roles: help group members maintain good feelings about the group and about working with group members (good)
-personal roles: help group members fulfill personal needs rather than help the group (bad)
Structure 4: Create Relation to the Organizational Hierarchy
-link the group to the organization structure
-a committee that ties into formal organization at high level is perceived as important and powerful (high level association provides political clout & resources to succeed)
Structure 5: Create Authority
-managers must decide what (if any) authority the group will have
-will the group have authority to: set policies, advise other groups, spends funds, make decisions or only recommend decisions, require actions of others?)
Structure 6: Create Leader
-will managers appoint a leader or allow group members to elect their own leaders?
-how long should someone be allowed to serve as group leader?
-what duties and authorities will the group leader have?
-who will fill the group leader position?
Structure 7: Create Culture
Group's values, attitudes, and norms:
-Should fit the purpose
of the group
-Should not conflict
with the HCO's overall
structure only creates...
a committee or group
Groups have processes to...
do their work
5 group processes
3. communicating and interacting
4. decision making
Process 1: Developing
Five stages of group development:
1. Forming (group members get to know each other and reach common goals)
2. Storming (group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused)
3. Norming (close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members)
4. Performing (the group begins to do its real work)
5. Adjourning (only for task forces that are temporary)
-these steps take time!
Process 2: Leading
motivate and influence group members
When leading, managers should:
-share vision and goals for the group
-divide up work, tasks, and responsibilities
-motivate group members
-perform task and maintenance roles
-interact effectively with each group member
Process 3: communicating and interacting
-effective communication process needed within the group & by group with others outside the group
-involves speaking, listening, discussing, persuading, explaining, and other interpersonal communications
Process 4: Decision Making
- Decision making can range from autocratic to democratic.
- Groups should: ensure members are accountable for decisions & avoid groupthink when making decisions.
Process 5: Learning
-concerned about the group learning about itself (group must learn as a group; different from individual learning)
-the group must reflect on its structure and its processes; learn how it is doing as a group)
-enables a group to learn about itself; to adjust its structures and processes to improve performance
What is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations?
created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization
recognized by group that have evolved independently in an org
group leadership--conformity and deviance
-members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right
-when a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them
-conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group
-deviance allows for new ideas in the group
members should benefit when the group performs well--
rewards can be monetary or in other forms such as special recognition
a combination of both individual and group performance
make additional resources (beyond compensation) such as...
choice assignments available to high-performance groups
the 5 dysfunctions of a team
by Patrick Lencioni
absence of trust-fear of conflict-lack of commitment-avoidance of accountability-inattention to results
-the human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually
-results in possibly lower group performance and failure to obtain group goals
-let others do it
Reduce social loafing
-make individual efforts identifiable and accountable
-emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members
-keep group size at an appropriate level
-before calling a meeting, ENSURE the meeting is really needed
-plan the meeting: who, what, where, when, why and how
-send participants the AGENDA and reading materials early enough so they can read and prepare
-orient new members before the meeting
-arrange for someone to RECORD MINUTES (and to distribute them later)
-set the tone and STATE GROUND RULES (ex: be on time, no phones, etc)
-RESPECT PEOPLE'S TIME--BEGIN on time, stay on time, end on time
-state the purpose of the meeting
-lead the meeting, STAY ON AGENDA, and use time wisely to cover all agenda items
-respect everyone by leading a balanced discussion, SEEKING INPUT from everyone and performing task and maintenance roles
-don't spend time on issues that would be better discussed by smaller subcommittees or 1-1
-use time-outs, mediation, or separate meetings, if necessary, to RESOLVE CONFLICT
-end on a positive note, summarize meeting, review assignments, and THANK PARTICIPANTS
-FOLLOW THROUGH on decisions, assignments, and arrangements for the next meeting
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