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a sample (or group) that is treated like other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it.

dependent variable

factor that changes as a result of changing the independent variable; what is measured during an experiment

independent variable

factor that is changed on purpose during an experiment


a general prediction or statement that can be tested by doing an experiment


information obtained using your senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell); may sometimes involve the use of instruments to make measurements.


a possible explanation based on an observation


information that has been collected


a procedure carried out to test something, or answer a question

data table

an organized way of using rows and columns to record results and observations


a single run of an experiment


a factor that may affect the results of an experiment

controlled variable / constant

a factor in an experiment that you keep the same for each trial

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