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Test 6: Ch. 14
Terms in this set (50)
Peter is a clinical psychologist. When determining whether a client's behavior shows psychopathology, he should use all of the following criteria EXCEPT whether the ...
a) behavior is maladaptive.
b) client recognizes he or she has a disorder.
c) behavior deviates from cultural norms.
d) person is experiencing distress.
client recognizes he or she has a disorder
. Dr. Clarkson is treating a client with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). He learns that the client's parents divorced and she has never felt loved because her father left the family. By looking for the issues that led to the development of her OCD, Dr. Clarkson is ...
a) making a diagnosis
b) attempting to assess function
c) attempting to determine etiology
d) making a prognosis.
attempting to determine etiology
Mellie has not been out of the house in three weeks because she is afraid that people are following her and planning on hurting her, which makes her very worried. Mellie's neighbors are worried about her. Which of the following statements does NOT characterize Mellie's experience?
a) Her behavior may be adaptive
b) Her behavior is upsetting to others
c) Her behavior deviates from social norms
d) Her behavior is personally distressing
Her behavior may be adaptive
According to the diathesis-stress model, mental disorders are caused by both ________ and stress.
a) a predisposition to mental illness
b) unconscious conflicts
c) sociocultural factors
d) abnormal thought processes
a predisposition to mental illness
Dianne is convinced she has developed an anxiety disorder because she has an underlying biological condition that was brought out by living in a stressful environment. Dianne's belief about how she developed psychopathology is most consistent with ...
a) a biopsychosocial approach
b) a dimensional approach
d) the diathesis-stress model
the diathesis-stress model
According to the diathesis-stress model, which person is most likely to experience a depressed state?
a) Jane, who experienced neglect as a child and has low levels of stress at work
b) Jaleesa, who had a pleasant childhood but now has high levels of stress at work
c) Janice, who has a family history of mental illness and was recently laid off from her job
d) Jennifer, who has no family history of mental illness and was recently laid off from her job
Janice, who has a family history of mental illness and was recently laid off from her job
Germaine has a nervous personality. This semester, he is enrolled in 18 credit hours while also studying for his medical school exam. Although he never had them before, Germaine starts having panic attacks during exams. In this situation, the diathesis is ________, and the stressor is________.
a) the medical school exam; his personality
b) his personality; the medical school exam
c) the first panic attack; his course load
d) his course load; the first panic attack
his personality; the medical school exam
After meeting with Ramie for several sessions, Dr. Morris discusses her prognosis. Dr. Morris is most likely talking about ...
a) how Ramie's mental disorder is defined
b) the likely cause of Ramie's disorder
c) whether he has correctly diagnosed Ramie' s disorder
d) the future course and probable outcome of Ramie's disorder
the future course and probable outcome of Ramie's disorder
Emil Kraepelin is well-known in the field of psychology because he noticed that not all people with psychopathology were experiencing the same disorder. Further, he could identify different types of psychopathology by grouping clients' symptoms. Because of this classification system, Kraepelin's work is the basis for the ....
a) study of the etiology of mental disorders
b) biopsychosocial approach
c) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
d) diathesis-stress model
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Dr. Leung gives all of her clients a questionnaire about sleeping and eating habits, daily activities, and emotional states. Based on this information, Dr. Leung can determine whether depressive symptoms are present. Dr. Leung is using ________ to assess psychopathology.
c) psychological testing
Jonah experiences nearly constant anxiety that is not associated with a specific thing. Jonah is most likely to be diagnosed with ...
a) panic disorder
b) obsessive-compulsive disorder
d) generalized anxiety disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
Because Simone works with clients who have anxiety disorders, she knows that the key characteristic of this group of mental disorder is ....
a) changing moods that are not related to events in the environment
b) disorganized thoughts and high physical activation
c) feelings of increasing nervousness in the absence of threat
d) ongoing problems with interpersonal relationships
feelings of increasing nervousness in the absence of threat
Lisa has a normal response to stress when she is worried about losing her job. Lisa's reaction may become an anxiety disorder if it ...
a) is paired with under-arousal of her autonomic nervous system
b) lasts for more than a few weeks
c) is excessive in the absence of a true threat
d) goes undiagnosed
is excessive in the absence of a true threat
Gloria sometimes finds herself experiencing episodes of sudden overpowering terror and worry that come out of nowhere and make her short of breath. Based on this, Gloria might be diagnosed with ...
a) generalized anxiety disorder
c) panic disorder
d) posttraumatic stress disorder
Lillian is experiencing an anxiety disorder in which she is afraid of not being able to escape what she perceives to be a threatening situation. Based on this, Lillian is most likely to be diagnosed with ...
a) a specific phobia
c) generalized anxiety disorder
d) social phobia
Jared had to quit his job because while he was at work, he constantly worried about a wide variety of things, including what his wife and children were doing at home. In addition, he is easily distracted, often irritable, and sleep deprived. Jared is most likely to be diagnosed with ...
a) posttraumatic stress disorder
c) generalized anxiety disorder
d) panic attacks
generalized anxiety disorder
When Valerie leaves her house, she experiences unwelcome thoughts that make her nervous, so she engages in repetitive behaviors that make her feel calmer so she can get into her car. Based on this, Valerie is most likely to be diagnosed with ...
a) obsessive-compulsive disorder
b) generalized anxiety disorder
c) social phobia
d) panic attacks
Fernando cannot stop worrying that a thief is going to break into his apartment, so he keeps checking the doors to make sure they are locked. Fernando's worrisome thoughts about a break-in are a(n) ________. The fact that Fernando checks the locks over and over is a(n) ________.
a) compulsion; obsession
b) obsession; compulsion
c) phobia; ritual
d) ritual; phobia
Malcolm refuses to shake hands with strangers (or anyone else for that matter) because he is fearful that they will infect him with germs. Malcolm is displaying signs of ....
a) panic attacks
b) social phobia
c) obsessive-compulsive disorder
Individuals diagnosed with depression tend to attribute negative outcomes to ________ and positive outcomes to ________.
a) others; themselves
b) personal shortcomings; luck
c) chance; chance
d) errors in logic; their unconscious selves
personal shortcomings; luck
Lithium has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of ________ disorders. However, clients frequently refuse to take this drug because it ________.
a) bipolar; reduces their positive feelings
b) depressive; increases their appetite for food
c) bipolar; decreases their sexual motivation
d) depressive; decreases the length of depressive episodes but makes them more severe
bipolar; reduces their positive feelings
According to the learned helplessness model of depression, some people with depression ...
a) think they have no control over the outcomes of events they experience
b) attribute outcomes to situational factors that are specific and temporary
c) explain negative events as a result of their own negative personality traits
d) make errors in logic when explaining outcomes they have experienced
think they have no control over the outcomes of events they experience
Carrie recently quit her job, packed up her car, and drove to Las Vegas, where she gambled away her entire life savings in 24 hours. Based on this, Carrie may be experiencing ...
a) a manic episode
c) obsessive-compulsive disorder
d) a panic attack
a manic episode
Mary experiences long periods of time when she feels very depressed. However, she occasionally goes through phases where she is highly focused on her painting and she creates beautiful works that provide a rewarding experience to her. It is most likely that Mary would be diagnosed with ________ disorder.
a) major depressive
b) bipolar II
c) persistent depressive
d) bipolar I
John was recently diagnosed with schizophrenia. He frequently makes statements that are not logical and contain repeating rhyming words, such as "The train brain rained on me." In this example, John is displaying ....
a) disorganized speech
d) negative symptoms
Nash believes he is a part of a secret spy organization that sends coded messages to its informants through television commercials. Based on this, Nash is most likely experiencing ...
c) negative symptoms
d) disorganized behavior
Phoenix hears voices in his head that tell him to punch holes in the walls of his room. Because Phoenix is perceiving the voices without an external auditory stimulus, he is experiencing ...
a) a delusion
b) a hallucination
d) loosening of associations
Dwight is very apathetic toward others. He does not show much outward emotion, his speech is slow, and he speaks in a monotone. If Dwight has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, then what he is displaying are ________ symptoms.
Dr. Clark is treating clients with schizophrenia who have disorganized speech. She notices that their speech ...
a) is similar to that of people with depressive disorders.
b) is always very simple, like that of a child.
c) shifts rapidly between topics with no obvious logic.
d) is delayed in its development by several years.
shifts rapidly between topics with no obvious logic.
Caroline acts strangely and it interferes with her life. She uses an old grocery cart to collect trash from the street. She wears multiple layers of clothing even when it is hot outside. She frequently talks to herself in public. Caroline is most likely ...
a) experiencing severe bipolar disorder.
b) going to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.
c) showing both obsessions and compulsions.
d) displaying the disorganized behavior that is associated with schizophrenia
displaying the disorganized behavior that is associated with schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for ...
Which of the following conditions would place you at the greatest risk of developing schizophrenia during your lifetime?
a) Both of your parents have the disorder.
b) Your fraternal twin has the disorder.
c) Your spouse has the disorder.
d) There are generally higher rates of schizophrenia in your culture
Both of your parents have the disorder.
Compared with people who do not develop schizophrenia, people who develop schizophrenia ...
a) show more negative emotions and motor disturbances as children.
b) seek treatment at a younger age.
c) are more likely to take their medications.
d) tend to be higher functioning intellectually as children
show more negative emotions and motor disturbances as children
Which of the following is NOT a factor that is thought to influence schizophrenia?
a) exposure to viruses
b) birth order
c) abnormal levels of dopamine
d) stressful home life
Aaron has been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Aaron is most likely experiencing ...
a) disturbances in identity, emotional instability, and impulse control.
b) low intelligence and a lack of remorse.
c) an overly strong sense of self and aggression.
d) strong pleasure-seeking tendencies and aggression.
disturbances in identity, emotional instability, and impulse control.
When Billy meets with his therapist, he makes statements showing that he likes to manipulate other people, is a good liar, and always needs immediate gratification. Billy's disregard for social norms and the feelings of others means that his therapist is most likely to diagnose him with ________ personality disorder.
Sharon has a history of having highly negative emotional reactions when her relationships are disrupted, and she often acts impulsively. Sharon is most likely to be diagnosed with ________ personality disorder.
Mario has always tended to have "love-hate" relationships with people who are close to him and constantly worries about people leaving him. Thus, he smothers them with affection only to feel rejected and disappointed when they back away from this behavior. Mario has threatened to commit suicide several times and most people view him as emotionally unstable. Based on this, Mario might be diagnosed with ________ personality disorder.
Dr. Padgett meets a new client who has antisocial personality disorder. The client most likely has
a) a lack of empathy and remorse.
b) an inability to control his or her impulses.
c) feelings of inadequacy.
d) detachment from social relationships
a lack of empathy and remorse
Which of the following behavioral characteristics would tell you that a friend of yours is experiencing antisocial personality disorder rather than some other personality disorder?
a) He has a weak sense of self and does not like to be alone.
b) He shifts quickly from one mood to another without any obvious reason.
c) He is uncaring toward others and focused on pleasure.
d) He engages in self-mutilation and is very impulsive.
He is uncaring toward others and focused on pleasure
Ralph sometimes experiences disruptions to his identity, memory, and conscious awareness. Because of this he may be diagnosed with
a) avoidant personality disorder.
b) borderline personality disorder.
c) a dissociative disorder.
a dissociative disorder
Janelle is in jail for assault but she consistently tells the police that she does not remember arguing with her boyfriend or hitting him with her car. In fact, she cannot remember anything that happened over the last two days. If Janelle is telling the truth, then she may be experiencing dissociative ...
b) personality disorder.
c) identity disorder.
Throughout her childhood, 12-year-old Carmella has experienced problems affecting her emotions and learning ability. It is most likely that Carmella is experiencing a ...
a) personality disorder.
b) neurodevelopmental disorder.
c) disorder of thought.
d) disorder of self.
Augustine's first-grade teacher tells his parents that he is "out of control" at school because he frequently interrupts his classmates, does not follow directions, and acts impulsively. Augustine's parents are worried he has ...
a) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
b) a personality disorder.
c) a neurodevelopmental disorder.
d) dissociative identity disorder
a neurodevelopmental disorder.
Juan has extreme difficulty using his math skills when compared with other students his age. However, his performance in other subject areas is above average. If Juan has a neurodevelopmental disorder, he is most likely to be diagnosed with a(n)
a) specific learning disorder.
b) autism spectrum disorder.
c) intellectual disability.
d) communication disorder
specific learning disorder
Emily's teacher sees that she is struggling in most subjects, has trouble understanding directions, and has problems with her adaptive functioning. The teacher is concerned that Emily has a(n) ...
a) specific learning disorder.
b) communication disorder.
c) motor disorder.
d) intellectual disability.
Two-year-old Antonina's parents notice that she rarely says any words and has never really made eye contact with them. She is intensely preoccupied with the buttons and zippers on clothing and pays little attention to anything else. Antonina ...
a) could be diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
b) will be at higher risk for a motor disorder.
c) will be at higher risk for intellectual disability.
d) could be diagnosed with autism
could be diagnosed with autism
Which of the following children would have the most difficult time making an emotional connection with other children?
a) Tommy, who has attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
b) Warren, who has a specific learning disorder
c) Chad, who has autism
d) Corey, who has a motor disorder
Chad, who has autism
Jacob has clear symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and has trouble concentrating and stopping his impulsive actions. Jacob's behavior resembles that of people with damage in the ..
a) occipital lobes.
b) frontal lobes.
Dara is always on the move! She has a hard time sitting still in her desk at school and often has difficulty finding classmates to play with because she misses social cues and is impulsive. Based on this, Dara is most likely to be diagnosed with ...
a) autism spectrum disorder.
b) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
c) a motor disorder.
d) a communication disorder.
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