micro exam 4: microbiome

body habors ~ ___ prokaryotic and euk micororgs
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 74
Terms in this set (74)
what has finding viruses in NF done to researchmade disease and health research more difficultdo identical twins have identical NF or microbiotanobottle fed baby= NF that initially colonizes the large intestine of bottle fed babies are of mixed pop includingcoliforms (gram - rods) - E.coli, enterobacteria, Klebseiellosis (lactose ferm) gram + = lactobacillus, enteric strepto, staphylocbreast fed abby= inestinal flora starts with =e.coli and streptobc of contact w people and enviorbreast fed babies soon have what microbes in themprimarily bifidobacterium and lactobacillus both gram +breast milk produces ______ different _______>2000 , diff oligosaccharides very diverse in type and concentration and dynamic changes in naturewhy cant formulas imitate breastmilkdoesn't have nutrients for bifidobacterium to survive on but did identify 2 oligosaccharides and incorporated into formulawoman with mastitis -->noticed in breast milk, a very reduced lactobacillus concentration so supplement and rapidly clears infectionbeneficial properties of bifidobacterium (studied in adults but true for babies)-intestinal balance -lactose tolerance -antitumorigenic activity -reduce serum cholesterol levels -promotes calcium absorption -synthesis of B complex vitamins -reduce or prevent the excretion of rotavirus (esp for babies, causes 'slick gut disease')(helps prevent spread of virus)Probioticsoral administration of living organisms to promote health and reestablish the natural balance *host specific*probiotic microbes (work w nf) and do what inside your body? hint: pathogens, substances toxins-compete w/ pathogens for space and nutrients -inactivate toxins or metabolites -produce inhibitory substances (antibiotics an acids) -stimulate immunitycharacteristics of probiotic bacteria-nonpathogenic -nontoxic -effective -easily cultured -withstand acid and bileindustry standards of probioticsbe able to grow in large amounts, no bad flavor or odor, retain its fxnfood with probiotics naturally occuringyogurt, sauerkraut, kefirNF compared person to personeveryones is unique but some similarities from person to personwhat makes up the NFbacter, EUK, and viruseswhat bact is on skinstrepto and staphlo and lactobacilluswhy is there no gram - on the skinits too hostilename 2 places on body where there are huge numbers of microbesmouth and large intestinethe most diverse part of the bodyskinwhat 3 microbiomes does the skin haveoily, dry, moistwhat type of bact does the skin not containgram -what characteristics make the skin a hostile microenviorment-periodic dying -slightly acidic (nf --> metabolizes --> acids (ph ~6) -sweat (NaCl - osmotic stress) -lysosomes- in all bodily secretions, attacks beta 1-4 linkages between NAM-NAGwhat happens to oils during pubertyincreased oil/sebum productionwhat bacteria causes acne? how?Proprionie bacterium -bact metab oil into volatile fatty acids --> causes release of inflammable products = acneskin probiotics have ointments withNFProprionibacteriumacnewhy cant you treat acne with antibioticstemp solution, wipes out NFduring eye infection, what occurssee a decrease in bacterial diversity, and increase in Pseudomanas sp.Pseudomanas spindicator for eye infectionPsudomanas aeruginosaswimmers ear can use anything as a carbon source so can cause many ear infections- usually in young childrensteps to kill bacteria infection in earbact infection --> treat with antibiotics --> kills bacteria but fluid is still present = causing pressure **use ear tubes to drain fluid from throatwhy do mainly younger children get ear infectionsas you age, the tube in your ear bends- making it harder for bacteria to make its way up- blocks bacteriahow many microbes are in your mouth>700how do org survive mechanical removal in mouthstick to gums and teethhow many bacteria in saliva10^9 bact/mlwhat types of bacteria are in salivastrepto, staphylo, Neisseria, lactobacilli, fungi and protozoaStreptococci = (s. mutans)dental plaque, dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal diseasewhat happens when they used antibiotics in the mouthwiped out nf --> cancerhow does - charged bacteria attach to - charged enamalnaturally it repels, but plaque blocks the natural mechanism -biofilm in mouth- org into layersupper respiratory tract NF is similar to whatoral cavity (streptocci)bacteria in lung appear aslow bacterial population- appear as isolated islands in lung tissieuWhat allows for smooth movement of lunglungs being coated with surfactant- but includes antimicrobial peptideswhat alcoholism does to your lungs wb smoking-lazy epiglottis, stays open and allows bact entry to lungs -lazy macrophages- lung phagozytized = increased lung infection -smoking = destroys cilia = increased infectionslargest microbial population of the bodylarge intestinehow are microbes eliminated in the large intestine how are they replaced1. peristalsis- squeezing 2. desquamation- surface mucous flakes off 3. movement of mucus- expels large numbers of bact in feces replaced rapidly due to high reproductive rate --> self- regualtingwhat types of bact are in NF of Large intestineobligate anaerobes >90% -bacteroides, bifidobacterium, Fusobacterium, Clostridium perfingens -facultative anaerobes such as E.Coli, Enterococci, yeats, ect.how does large intestine normal flora block and increase elimination of invaders-competes with exogenous bacteria -produces as natural metabolites, acids, antibiotics, bacteriocins? -modifies environment w/ acids, bile, and mucus --> increasing bacterial trapping and removalHow does intestinal flora influence the development of specific immunity?by stimulating GALT- gut associated lymphoid tissue developmentwhat is GALTgut associated lymphoid tissue- contains immunity response cells --> Blymph- produces antibodies TLymph- soluble protein mediators that communicate between cells, directly interact and can be cytotoxicintestinal flora contributes to ____ synthesisvitamin Kbacterial metabolism in the gut may result indetoxification or may produce carcinogen ex: food dyes can be broken down by bacteria into carcinogenic substancesfactors that can cause imbalance/dysbiosis in gutstress, toxins, food particles, drugswhat can result from dysbiosis of gutpathogens and organ malfunctionWhen dysbiosis occurs, what happens (Leaky gut progression)increased permeability of gut epithelium --> increases particles in bl stream --> so immune response goes into overdrive --> increased inflammation and increased antibodies RESULT: -food intolerance from this (lactose intolerance) and have immune response imbalance (body cans start attack its own tissues) (microvilli are shortened during dysbiosis so impairs nutrient absorption ex: iodine and selenium which are needed for your thyroid)why is gut NF considered to be the 2nd brainNF makes diff pharmacologically active substances that react with host receptors -influences production of hormones, endocrine molecules, brian chemistry(behavior), and blood brain barrierGI diseases are associated withanxiety and depressionwhat happens when the NF of the gut is disrupted with antibioticschanges in behavior - increased brained derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)- linked to depression and anxiety -when oral antibiotics discont. --> return to normalbrain- derived neurotrophic factorincreased due to- antibiotics disrupt the NF of the gut- changes behavior as wellfemale genital tract in a state of lux: whydue to menstrual cycle --> hormone fluctuationwhat bacteria dominates the female genital tract?acid-tolerant lactobacillusestrogen stimulates glycogen production -->glycogen used by lactobacillus to produce lactic acids = decreasing pH --> protects fetal developemtwhy do woman have bladder infections more often than menshorter urethra, increased bacteria in bladder from increased activities males urethra is about 4x as longbenefits of having more microbes than we thought in internal organs and tissues-NF are antagonistic against pathogens -can be sources of nutrients and vitamins -stimulates immune response (specific and non)