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Vocab and things to help with written test.

Example of horizontal hostility

If a Deaf person has some sort of phenomenal success, the members of the community may join him or her and celebrate the success for a period of time. Once that person has had enough attention, the group will change the subject or ignore the "star". If the Deaf insists on being the center of attention, the group will cut them down until they resume their place in the group.

Reciprocity of perspectives in oppression means

Members of this group assume that others want to be like them. European Americans (white) generally assume Mexican Americans, Native Americans, or African Americans want to walk, talk, dress, and behave like them. Hearing people assume Deaf people want to become hearing.

The first Deaf President of Gallaudet

I King Jordan in 1988

The Main Tenets of the Code of Professional Conduct

• Interpreters adhere to the standards of confidential communication
• Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
• Interpreters conduct themselves in a manor appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
• Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers
• Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
• Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
• Interpreters engage in professional development.

Vicarious Trauma

Trauma that results from observing another person's traumatic experience. Interpreters witness so much oppression or abuse, that they feel like they themselves have been the victims.

Helper Interpreter Philosophy

longer recommended for the profession because it is too typical and results in inappropriate boundaries and an imbalance and power weighed on the side of hearing people

Machine/Conduit Interpreter Philosophy:

This is a set of beliefs regarding Deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics which influences the way a person views her/his role and work as an interpreter. This includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn how to take care of themselves. Word-for-sign equivalence between signs and spoken English and the interpreter accepts no responsibility for the interaction or communication dynamics taking place. (Alternate term: Conduit philosophy).

Machine Conduit

This is not effective because consumers see all the signs being thrown at them making it difficult for the consumer to understand. Some Deaf do not have a large vocabulary, so finger spelling words like "loquacious" for example would just be a word to them.

Bi-Bi Interpreter Philosophy

: Philosophy of interpreting based on the belief that effective interpretation requires cultural and linguistic mediation in order to accomplish speaker goals and maintain dynamic equivalence. This is based on the recognition of Deaf people as members of an oppressed minority, accepts ASL as a language and Deaf culture as that which encompasses the norms, values and traditions of this community of people.

Bi-Bi Philosophy: This is more followed today because

• Interpreters are sensitive to physical communication dynamics.
• Interpreters indicate who is speaking
• Place themselves appropriately
• Interpreters are being effective communicators
• Keenly aware of the inherent differences in the languages, cultures, and norms for social interaction and schema of the parties using interpreting services.
• Deaf consumers receiving the interpreted information are able to demonstrate higher levels of comprehension of the information.

Linguistic Expansion

Interpreting understood though not directly stated or expressed information or ideas, as well as explicit information and ideas, if it is needed to guarantee full communication.

Cultural Expansion

Providing the contextual information needed to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone with a different schema or experiential base.

Cultural/Linguistic Reduction

Reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information, without affecting the meaning intended. This is sometimes required due to different cultural, social, and communication norms and expectations.

Cultural/Linguistic expansions/reductions

These are ethical because the consumer's needs are being met and they are being provided cultural need, linguistic need, and difference in experiential frame. Interpreters are respecting their consumers.

It takes twice as long to make a sign than to speak a word but communicating in ASL takes the same time as English

This is because ASL has its own visual prosody made up of pauses and phraseology, as well as certain visual intonation patterns, to convey utterances composed primarily of content elements in ways that take advantage of the multi dimensional nature of visual communication

Contrasting for "I'm tired"

Me have energy, Not...tired me.

Noun Listing for Country

USA, Russia, Canada, ect...

Couch/Nesting for "bed"

You know some wood, some metal frame; have different size twin, king, full, queen. Have mattress and box spring with sheets and blanket, you know use for sleep on.

3 reasons professions have code of ethics

• To ensure quality of service for all persons involved
• Provide guidance
• Protect the public in delivery of service

RID was established

June 14-16 1964
• RID was established at: The Workshop for Rehabilitation Personnel and Interpreters. This was held at the Ball State Teachers College in Muncie, Indiana.

External Noise:

• Flickering of overhead florescent light
• Squeal of a poorly connected microphone
• Coughing of someone in the room
• Doors closing

Physiological noise

• Illness
• Hunger
• Exhaustion

Psychological noise:

• Random thoughts that pop into one's mind
• Internal stress
• Personal judgments about the other participants

Euphemistic language:

• The powder room
• Gone to a better place

Abstract words

• Weapon
• Drugs
• Camping

Passive Voice:

• The President was shot
• My friend has been lied to
• The car was wrecked
• The house was big


• I'm kinda tired
• I guess you could do it
• I'm sorta hungry
• I think I'm okay


• know...I was wondering ..uh
• I don't..uh.. think you could..umm..uh


• I'm really so very happy to see you
• It's truly an absolute honor to meet you

Polite form

• I don't want to impose but...could you help me?

Tag question

• She did a great job didn't she?
• We ought to move on shouldn't we?
• I think I'll go to work (up talk)


• I'm not sure but I think this is my coat.
• It's only my opinion but I think this stinks.

Frozen Register:

• The Lord's prayer
• The National Anthem

Formal Register

• Workshop where a speaker is
• Sports arena introduction

Consultative Register

• Doctor visit for a check up
• Meeting with a lawyer

Informal Register

• Family reunion
• Day camp

Intimate Register

• A person walking into a room receives a "knowing look" by that person
• "Inside joke" or "You had to be there"

Linguistic vs. Paralinguistic features of language

Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage can be expressed consciously or unconsciously and it includes the pitch, volume, and intonation of speech.
Linguistic is the study of natural language, structure, grammar, meaning, phonology (sounds), phonetics speech sounds, non-speech sounds, and how they are produced.

Appropriate attire for interpreters:

• Clothing that is an easy contrast with the color of their skin, and not too confusing for the eyes.
• White terps wear black, navy blue, dark green, dark burgundy, or dark gray.
• Black terps wear cream, pastels, or beige.
• No stripes, flowers, polka dots, plaids, or anything that could be distracting

3 ways to get a Deaf persons attention

• Turning lights on and off
• Waving hand as long as you are in the deaf persons view
• If the deaf person has their back facing you and across the room, have someone tap them on their shoulders

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