Example of horizontal hostility
If a Deaf person has some sort of phenomenal success, the members of the community may join him or her and celebrate the success for a period of time. Once that person has had enough attention, the group will change the subject or ignore the "star". If the Deaf insists on being the center of attention, the group will cut them down until they resume their place in the group.
Reciprocity of perspectives in oppression means
Members of this group assume that others want to be like them. European Americans (white) generally assume Mexican Americans, Native Americans, or African Americans want to walk, talk, dress, and behave like them. Hearing people assume Deaf people want to become hearing.
The Main Tenets of the Code of Professional Conduct
• Interpreters adhere to the standards of confidential communication
• Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
• Interpreters conduct themselves in a manor appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
• Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers
• Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
• Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
• Interpreters engage in professional development.
Trauma that results from observing another person's traumatic experience. Interpreters witness so much oppression or abuse, that they feel like they themselves have been the victims.
Helper Interpreter Philosophy
longer recommended for the profession because it is too typical and results in inappropriate boundaries and an imbalance and power weighed on the side of hearing people
Machine/Conduit Interpreter Philosophy:
This is a set of beliefs regarding Deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics which influences the way a person views her/his role and work as an interpreter. This includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn how to take care of themselves. Word-for-sign equivalence between signs and spoken English and the interpreter accepts no responsibility for the interaction or communication dynamics taking place. (Alternate term: Conduit philosophy).
This is not effective because consumers see all the signs being thrown at them making it difficult for the consumer to understand. Some Deaf do not have a large vocabulary, so finger spelling words like "loquacious" for example would just be a word to them.
Bi-Bi Interpreter Philosophy
: Philosophy of interpreting based on the belief that effective interpretation requires cultural and linguistic mediation in order to accomplish speaker goals and maintain dynamic equivalence. This is based on the recognition of Deaf people as members of an oppressed minority, accepts ASL as a language and Deaf culture as that which encompasses the norms, values and traditions of this community of people.
Bi-Bi Philosophy: This is more followed today because
• Interpreters are sensitive to physical communication dynamics.
• Interpreters indicate who is speaking
• Place themselves appropriately
• Interpreters are being effective communicators
• Keenly aware of the inherent differences in the languages, cultures, and norms for social interaction and schema of the parties using interpreting services.
• Deaf consumers receiving the interpreted information are able to demonstrate higher levels of comprehension of the information.
Interpreting understood though not directly stated or expressed information or ideas, as well as explicit information and ideas, if it is needed to guarantee full communication.
Providing the contextual information needed to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone with a different schema or experiential base.
Reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information, without affecting the meaning intended. This is sometimes required due to different cultural, social, and communication norms and expectations.
These are ethical because the consumer's needs are being met and they are being provided cultural need, linguistic need, and difference in experiential frame. Interpreters are respecting their consumers.
It takes twice as long to make a sign than to speak a word but communicating in ASL takes the same time as English
This is because ASL has its own visual prosody made up of pauses and phraseology, as well as certain visual intonation patterns, to convey utterances composed primarily of content elements in ways that take advantage of the multi dimensional nature of visual communication
Couch/Nesting for "bed"
You know some wood, some metal frame; have different size twin, king, full, queen. Have mattress and box spring with sheets and blanket, you know use for sleep on.
3 reasons professions have code of ethics
• To ensure quality of service for all persons involved
• Provide guidance
• Protect the public in delivery of service
RID was established
June 14-16 1964
• RID was established at: The Workshop for Rehabilitation Personnel and Interpreters. This was held at the Ball State Teachers College in Muncie, Indiana.
• Flickering of overhead florescent light
• Squeal of a poorly connected microphone
• Coughing of someone in the room
• Doors closing
• Random thoughts that pop into one's mind
• Internal stress
• Personal judgments about the other participants
• The President was shot
• My friend has been lied to
• The car was wrecked
• The house was big
• She did a great job didn't she?
• We ought to move on shouldn't we?
• I think I'll go to work (up talk)
• I'm not sure but I think this is my coat.
• It's only my opinion but I think this stinks.
• A person walking into a room receives a "knowing look" by that person
• "Inside joke" or "You had to be there"
Linguistic vs. Paralinguistic features of language
Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage can be expressed consciously or unconsciously and it includes the pitch, volume, and intonation of speech.
Linguistic is the study of natural language, structure, grammar, meaning, phonology (sounds), phonetics speech sounds, non-speech sounds, and how they are produced.
Appropriate attire for interpreters:
• Clothing that is an easy contrast with the color of their skin, and not too confusing for the eyes.
• White terps wear black, navy blue, dark green, dark burgundy, or dark gray.
• Black terps wear cream, pastels, or beige.
• No stripes, flowers, polka dots, plaids, or anything that could be distracting