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Microbio303: Unhealthy Microbial Interactions (pt.1)
Terms in this set (24)
What causes damage (disease) in a host?
What is a commensal pathogen?
A member of the
that may cause disease under some conditions
What is an opportunisitc pathogen?
Cause disease only in compromised hosts
e.g.:immunocompromised, burns, wounds, malnutiriton, stress
What is a primary pathogen?
Cause disease even in healthy people
Often don't cause disease in all infected individuals
Who contributed to the advancements in how we know that microorganisms cause disease?
-Germ theory of disease
-worked with TB, anthrax, cholera, etc
Developed Koch's postulates
What are Koch's postulates?
1)Suspected pathogen must be present in all cases of disease and absent in healthy cases
2)Suspected pathogen must be grown in pure culture
3)Cells from pure culture of the suspected pathogen must cause disease in a healthy case
4)The suspected pathogen must be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original
What are the traits of pathogens?
1)They excel at:
-attaching to specific sites
-adapted to growth in the host
2)Some produce endotoxin
3)Some have the ability to evoke very strong inflammatory responses
What are some of the reserviors, sites in which pathogens remain viable and from which indiviudals may be infected?
=soil, water, pants
2)Other animals (
)=wild animals, domesticated animals
=often have a high carrier rate
What are some of the ways of transmission of environmental pathogens?
1)Inhalation of soil particles
2)Direct contact with would
3)Consumption of contaminated water or food
4)Swimming/bathing in contaminated water
What are some of the ways of transmission of pathogens from other animals?
1)bites from infected animals
2)Handling dead or live animals
3)Contact with animal feces
4)Consumption of animal products
5)Indirect transmission through a
(lyme disease or malaria)
What are some ways of human-restricted pathogens?
-Direct transmission from person to person (sexual contact, airborne droplets)
-Indirect transmission (airborne droplets,
=inanimate object capable of transmitting a disease)
Attachment is specific--T or F?
What are the 4 ways microbes can cross anatomical barriers into host tissues (invasion)?
1)Attach to epithelial cells
2)Enter epithelial cells
3)Loosen junctions and move between cells
once inside, transit to deeper tissues
A few pathogens stay put--T or F?
1)Many pathogens are obligate intraceullar pathogens--T or F?
2)What cell types are colonized?
1)FALSE: *many are facultative intracellular pathogens
are obligate intracellular pathogens
2)Professional phagocytes or other cell types
Entry into host is an inactive or active process?
process: microbe-directed process
Growth and colonization:
1)Initial inoculum is usually too (small or large) to cause much damage?
2)The pathogen needs to grow and replicate, they need to get/have what two things?
3)They regulate virulence factors which are what?
1)too small to cause any damage
and need the
appropriate environment conditions
like temperature pH, oxygen, etc
: any function needed to cause disease)
What is some of the damage pathogens can do inside host?
-Production of toxins (endotoxin, ie: LPS)
-Production of hydrolytic enzymes
-Injection of protein effectors into host cell (Type III secretion systems deliver effectors)
-Formation or dissolution of blood clots
-Disrupt normal immune response(degrade cytokines)
1)What are the properities of endotoxin?
2)Describe the function of toxin.
2)Function varies but is always specific
3)Enterotoxin=GI tract, the rest are easy
1)What is a known pore-forming toxin?
2)Shiga toxin is an exo or AB toxin? And what does it do?
3)Which one screws up signaling in cell?
2)Shiga toxin is a classic AB toxin--it inhibits protein synthesis
Targeted delivery of _____ proteins alters cellular function. What is an example of this?
Targeted delivery of
proteins alters cellular function.
Type III secretion systems
deliver effectors directly into host cell
What do Type III secretion systems deliver?
Deliver effectors directly into host cells
What are some of the ways pathogens avoid the host immune system?
Avoid or hide from immune system
-invave "privileged" area not monitored by immune system
-lack PAMPS for dectection
Actively disrupt immune system
-kill immune cells *effectors and leukotoxins)
-interfere with immune signaling
-interfere with immune effector function (e.g. complement or antiboides)
Virulence is _________
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