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Fall Final Literary Terms
Terms in this set (23)
__________is "a [great] man who is neither a paragon of virtue and justice nor undergoes the change to misfortune through any real badness or wickedness but because of some mistake."
a) a great man: "one of those who stand in great repute and prosperity, like Oedipus and Thyestes: conspicuous men from families of that kind." The hero is neither a villain nor a model of perfection but is basically good and decent.
b) "mistake" (hamartia): This Greek word, which Aristotle uses only once in the Poetics, has also been translated as "flaw" or as "error." The great man falls through--though not entirely because of--some weakness of character, some moral blindness, or error. We should note that the gods also are in some sense responsible for the hero's fall.
Aristotelian Tragic Hero
In Greek comedy the character called the eiron was a dissembler, who characteristically spoke in understatement and pretended to be less intelligent than he was, yet triumphed over the alazon—the self-deceiving and stupid braggart. ... In most modern critical uses of the term"____,"there remains the root sense of dissembling, or of hiding what is actually the case not, however, in order to deceive, but to achieve special rhetorical or artistic effects.
(Or the opposite of what you expect to happen)
involves a situation in a play or a narrative in which the audience or reader shares with the author knowledge of present or future circumstances of which a character is ignorant in that situation, the literary character unknowingly acts in a way we recognize to be grossly inappropriate to the actual circumstances, or expects the opposite of what we know that fate holds in store, or says something that anticipates the actual outcome, but not at all in the way that the character intends. Writers of Greek tragedy, who based their plots on legends whose outcome was already known to their audience, made frequent use of this device.
(which was traditionally classified as one of the tropes) is a statement in which the meaning that a speaker implies differs sharply from the meaning that is ostensibly expressed. The _______statement usually involves the explicit expression of one attitude or evaluation, but with indications in the overall speech-situation that the speaker intends a very different, and often opposite, attitude or evaluation. Thus
Atmosphere is the emotional tone pervading a section or the whole of a literary work, which fosters in the reader expectations as to the course of events, whether happy or (more commonly) terrifying or disastrous. Shakespeare establishes the tense and fearful atmosphere at the beginning of Hamlet by the terse and nervous dialogue of the sentinels as they anticipate are appearance of the ghost Coleridge engenders a compound of religious and superstitious terror by his description of the initial scene in the narrative poem Christabel (1816) and Hardy in his novel The Return of the Native (1878) makes Egdon Heath a brooding presence that reduces to pettiness and futility the human struggle for happiness for which it is the setting. Alternative terms frequently used for atmosphere are ________ and the French word ambiance.
______ is a general concept or doctrine, whether implicit or asserted, which an imaginative work is designed to involve and make persuasive to the reader.
Something that is itself and also stands for something as else such as how a flag is a piece of colored cloth that stands for a country.
Literary ______ can be universal as flowing water suggests time and eternity and a voyage suggests life. Such _____ are are used widely in literature.
The other type of _______ acquires its suggestiveness not from qualities inherent in itself by from the way in which it is used in a given work.
The greek goddess of retributive justice or vengeance. The term _________ is applied to the divine retribution, when an evil act brings about its own punishment. The term is also applied to both agent and act of merited punishment. It thus often becomes synonymous with fate, although a sense of justice is often associated with the term.
The error, frailty, mistaken judgment, or misstep through which the fortunes of the hero of a tragedy are reversed. Aristotle asserts that this hero should be a person "who is not eminently good or just, yet who misfortune is brought about by some error or frailty." The error is not necessarily a flaw in character, although _____ is often inaccurately called the tragic flaw. Aristotle sees a movement from happiness to miser as essential to tragedy. ______ can be an unwitting, even a necessary, misstep i doing rather than an error in character. _______ may be the result of bad judgment, bad character, ignorance, inherited weakness, accident, oar any of many other possible causes. It must, however, express itself through a definite action or failure to act.
Glory or the glory of song. The song of ______ will remain forever alive in the civilization that sings his glorious epic
Also known as Peripety or Perpeteia. It is the ______ for a protagonist-possible either a fall, as in a tragedy, or a success as in a comedy.
Reversal of fortune
An elaborated comparison. The epic ________ differs from an ordinary simile in being more involved and ornate.
Homeric (Epic) Simile
A figure that endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and inanimate objects with human form the representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities, intelligence, and emotions also an impersonation in drama of one character or person, whether real or fictitious, by another person. _________ is called Prosopopoeia, specifically when the personified figure speaks.
Strictly, an adjective used to point out a characteristic of a person or thing, sometimes applied to a noun or noun phrase used for a similar purpose. The Homeric _______, often a compound adjective, as "all-seeing" Jove, "swift-footed" Achilles, "blue-eyed" Athena, depends on the aptness combined with familiarity rather than on freshness or variety. It is almost a formulaic part of a name.
The explicit presentation by the author of the character through direct exposition, either in an introductory block or more often piecemeal (through irregular intervals) throughout the work, illustrated by action.
The presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader can deduce the attributes of the actor from the action.
The representation from within a character, without comment by the author, of the impact of actions and emotions the character's inner self.
A device by which a work presents material that occurred prior to the opening scene of the work. Various methods may be used, among them recollections of characters, narration by the characters, dream sequences, and reveries.
The presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for. ________ can result from the establishment of a mood or atmosphere. It can result from an event that adumbrates (indicates faintly) the later actions. It can result from the appearance of physical objects or facts, as the clues do in a detective story, or from the revelation (a surprising fact made known to people) of a fundamental and decisive character trait. In all cases, the purpose of foreshadowing is to prepare the reader or viewer for the action to come.
Nine goddesses represented as presiding over the various departments of art and science. They are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemoysne (memory). In literature, their traditional significance is that of inspiring and helping poets. The conventional names and areas of interest are: Calliope (epic), Clio (history), Erato (lyrics and love poetry), Euterpe (music), Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (sacred choric poetry), Terpischore (choral dance and song), Thalia (comedy), and Urania (astronomy).
An address to a deity for aid. In classical literature, convention demands an opening address to the Muses, requesting their assistance in writing. Epics, particularly, were likely to begin in this way.
A term from Horace, literally meaning, "in the midst of things." It is applied to the literary technique of opening a story in the middle of the action and then supplying information about the beginning of the action through flashbacks and other devices for exposition. The term i________ is usually applied to the Epic, where such an opening is one of the conventions
In Medias Res
According to Aristotle, the recognition of one's errors
One common form of hamartia in Greek tragedies was ______, that"pride" or overweening self-confidence which leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law.)
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