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The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

Cross-cultural studies

Studies that compare what happens in one or more other cultures; they provide information about the degree to which people are similar and to what degree behaviors are specific to certain cultures.


A set of values that give priority to personal rather than to group goals.


A set of values that give priority to personal rather than to group goals.


A set of values that give priority to personal rather than to group goals.

Socioeconomic status (SES)

A grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.


A shared pattern of characteristics such as cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion and language.


An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual's membership in a group.

English as a second language (ESL)

A widely used term for bilingual education programs and classes that teach English to students whose native language is not English.

Multicultural education

Education that values diversity and includes the perspectives of variety of cultural groups on a regular basis.


Providing people with intellectual and coping skills to succeed and make this a more just world.

Jigsaw Classroom

A classroom in which students from different cultural backgrounds cooperate by doing different parts of a project to reach a common goal.


The characteristics of people as males and females.

gender role

The set of expectations that prescribed how males and females should think, act and feel.


The process by which children acquire the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that are considered appropriate for their gender in a particular culture.

Gender Schema theory

States that gender-typing emerges as children gradually develop gender-appropriate and gender inappropriate in their culture.

Gender stereotypes

Broad categories that reflect impressions that beliefs about what behavior is appropriate for females and males.


Prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of the person's sex.

Rapport talk

The language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships; more characteristics of females than males.

Report talk

Talk that gives information; more characteristics of males than females.


The presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.

Quid pro quo sexual harassment

occurs when a school employee threatens to base an educational decision (such as a grade) on a student's submission to unwelcome sexual conduct.

Hostile environment sexual harassment

occurs when students are subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is so severe, persistent, or pervasive that it limits the students ability to benefit from their education.

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