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Continental shelf, slope, rise, depth, salinity, major currents, ecosystems

Oceans cover about _____% of the surface of the Earth.


The _________ is the area nearest the continents and has the shallowest water.

continental shelf

The ____________ extends down from the shelf to the rise.

continental slope

The __________ curves down from the slope to the ocean floor.

continental rise

The shelf, slope, and rise are covered with thick layers of ___________.

sediment (sand, mud and rocks)

The ____________ extends from the rise across nearly half of the ocean floor. It is flat and formed from sediment.

abyssal plain

Isolated underwater mountains are known as ___________. Hint: They are formed from volcanoes.


The deepest places in the ocean are _______. They can be 8,000 - 10,000 meters deep.


The ________ winds its way through all of the world's major oceans. It is formed from molten rock that cools and hardens.

mid-ocean ridge

Ocean water is a mixture of ____, _____, and ______.

gases, solids, liquids

Dissolved gases are necessary for the survival of marine life. True or False


______, especially sodium chloride, vary depending on evaporation and run-off from nearby land.


Salinity also varies according to ________.


Waters of the continental shelf receive the most sunlight and can support most of life in the oceans. True or False


_______ receive no sunlight, are very cold, and experience extreme pressure. These areas support the least life.


What are the three basic motions of ocean water?

waves, currents, and tides

What are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and, to a lesser degree, the sun?


_________ happen when the sun and moon line up during the new moon and the full moon. They have the highest high tides and the lowest low tides.

Spring tides

What tides occur when the sun, moon, and Earth are at right angles to each other?

Neap tides

Neap tides have the smallest difference between _____ and _____ tides.

high and low

What are caused by wind moving across the surface of the water?


Waves carry ______ that makes water particles move in circles.


_______ are streams of water within the oceans. These are caused by winds and the differences in salinity and temperature.


Colder, saltier water near the poles is _________ and tends to _______.

denser, sink

Warmer, less dense water ______.


The rotation of the Earth pulls ocean water causing ______ to flow in the opposite direction of the rotation.


The ______ _________ is an ocean current off the eastern part of the United States.

Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream brings (warm/cold) water from the equator and keeps the climate warm on the east coast.


Life in the oceans is dependent upon what four (4) things?

energy from the sun, dissolved gasses, currents, and minerals

________ produce much of Earth's oxygen and is the base of the ocean ecosystem.


What flourish in areas where nutrient-rich water upwells from the deep?


Animal-like plankton, swimming organisms, eat __________.


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