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When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power.


a set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

French prime minister of Louis XIV who promoted merchantilism and economic self-suffieicncy

Charles I

fought openly with parliament and puritans over money for wars- abused power (quartering troops, ship money, etc.) - Long Parliament (1640-60) Charles agrees with Parliament meets once every three years and couldn't be dissolved without consent.

Act of Union 1707

Scottish Parliament votes themselves out of existence. Why? #1 England promised all access to English markets. #2 Fear of Stewarts

Johannes Kepler

wrote "Three Laws of Planetary Motion"

Rene Descartes

Catholic, "I think, therefore I am," (never did say this), calls into question the sensory, important for deductive reasoning, uses strictly logical thinking rather than experimentation.

Thomas Hobbes

This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war- Wrote "Leviathan" - pro-absolutism, "divine right" monarchy

Louis XIV

Sun King, made France the strongest country in Europe, "I am the state", Intendants, strengthened army, built Versailles, costly and inefficient methods of tax collecting (nobility was not taxed), mercantilism, removes Calvinists from royal councils, will restrict power of parliament, never calls Estates General into session.

War of Spanish Succession

This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Philip V

James Ii

This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government - became unpopular because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule

Oliver Cromwell

Puritan, idealist, member of the gentry, created common wealth. Dictator of England after the English Civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England.

William and Mary

These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament

Francis Bacon

Empiricism, Scientific method - Sensory, tangible, demonstrative data

Anton Van Leeuenhoek

Came up with the concept of cells

The Divine Right of Kings

The idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and therefore answerable only to God

Cardinal Richelieu

This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy, built royal power by not relying on nobles and used middle class officers

Ship Money

unwritten rule, if you were a port city, there was a special tax that cities had to pay in order to build navies - Charles i makes everyone mad by expanding it to every town

New Model Army

Fighting force lead by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War

Glorious Revolution

"Revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed

Cogito Ergo Sum

Rene Descartes: "I think, therefore I am"

John Locke

philosopher, justified the Glorious Revolution - life, liberty, and property

L'etat c'est moi

"I am the State" - Louis XIV

James I

English monarch from Scotland, believes in divine right, "If there is no bishop, there is no king." - merges church and state, issues with parliament over taxation.

Nicholas Copernicus

First theorized that the earth revolved around the sun. Wrote "On the Revolution on the Heavenly Spheres" - Published after death

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