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Absolutism Study Cards

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Absolutism
When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power.
Merchantilism
a set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
French prime minister of Louis XIV who promoted merchantilism and economic self-suffieicncy
Charles I
fought openly with parliament and puritans over money for wars- abused power (quartering troops, ship money, etc.) - Long Parliament (1640-60) Charles agrees with Parliament meets once every three years and couldn't be dissolved without consent.
Act of Union 1707
Scottish Parliament votes themselves out of existence. Why? #1 England promised all access to English markets. #2 Fear of Stewarts
Johannes Kepler
wrote "Three Laws of Planetary Motion"
Rene Descartes
Catholic, "I think, therefore I am," (never did say this), calls into question the sensory, important for deductive reasoning, uses strictly logical thinking rather than experimentation.
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war- Wrote "Leviathan" - pro-absolutism, "divine right" monarchy
Louis XIV
Sun King, made France the strongest country in Europe, "I am the state", Intendants, strengthened army, built Versailles, costly and inefficient methods of tax collecting (nobility was not taxed), mercantilism, removes Calvinists from royal councils, will restrict power of parliament, never calls Estates General into session.
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Philip V
James Ii
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government - became unpopular because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan, idealist, member of the gentry, created common wealth. Dictator of England after the English Civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England.
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
Francis Bacon
Empiricism, Scientific method - Sensory, tangible, demonstrative data
Anton Van Leeuenhoek
Came up with the concept of cells
The Divine Right of Kings
The idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and therefore answerable only to God
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy, built royal power by not relying on nobles and used middle class officers
Ship Money
unwritten rule, if you were a port city, there was a special tax that cities had to pay in order to build navies - Charles i makes everyone mad by expanding it to every town
New Model Army
Fighting force lead by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War
Glorious Revolution
"Revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
Cogito Ergo Sum
Rene Descartes: "I think, therefore I am"
John Locke
philosopher, justified the Glorious Revolution - life, liberty, and property
L'etat c'est moi
"I am the State" - Louis XIV
James I
English monarch from Scotland, believes in divine right, "If there is no bishop, there is no king." - merges church and state, issues with parliament over taxation.
Nicholas Copernicus
First theorized that the earth revolved around the sun. Wrote "On the Revolution on the Heavenly Spheres" - Published after death