Psch of Music Final
Terms in this set (26)
2. External Auditory Meatus
4. Semi-circular Canals
6. Auditory Nerve
7. Eustachian Tube
Match the terms: Pitch, Frequency, Simple Hamonic Motion, Amplitude, Timbre.
1. The distance through which a vibrating body moves. The amount of change in pressure of a sound wave.
2. Simple vibration. The motion repeats itself in equal periods of time, examples are a vibrating string, a pendulum, or bouncing spring.
3. The number of cycles (complete vibration) of a sound wave that occur in one second.
4. The perception of frequency. The higher the frequency, the higher the perceived pitch.
5. A the tone color of a sound determined by the complexity of vibration of an object.
2. Simple Hamonic Motion
T/F. A musical scale typically has 3 structural characteristics including:
1) 5 to 7 notes.
2) structural importance of perfect consonances.
3) Equal-sized steps between consecutive notes.
Gap fill melodies exhibit a leap of a large melodic interval followed by...
A. step-wise motion in the opposite direction of the preceding leap.
B. a repeat of the previous leap.
C. another leap in the opposite direction.
D. step-wise motion in the same direction as the preceding leap.
Match: Envelope, Harmonics, Fundamental Frequency,
1. Frequencies produced by the complex vibration of a body, which vibrates as a whole number multiple (overtone) of the fundamental frequency.
2. The frequency at which the sound source vibrates as a whole and upon which the partials vibrate at whole number factors.
3. The shape of a tone in time consisting of an attack, initial decay, sustain and release.
4. Complex sounds which are not periodic and contain overtones, which are not part of the harmonic series.
2. Fundamental Frequency
Indicated 1. early sensitivity OR 2. later development
A. Ability to remember melodies they hear.
B. Sensitivity to musical key relationships.
C. Sensitivity to implied harmony.
D. Preference for consonant intervals.
E. prefer consonant intervals to dissonant intervals
F. Sensitivity to phrase structure (prefer correctly segmented phrases)
G. Sensitivity to melodic contour.
Match the neurological disorder with its correct description: amusia, aphasia, tune agnosia.
1. Impaired musical functioning. The cause can be environmental or congenital
2. A complete or partial loss of language-related abilities.
3. The inability to name or recognize music that was once familiar.
3. tune agnosia
fMRI, PET, MEG, EEG
1. A measure of electrical activity generated by chemical changes.
2. Measurement of magnetic fields arising from brain activity and must be measured in a magnetically shielded room.
3. Measuring levels of blood flow by injecting a radioactive solution into the bloodstream.
4. Identifies magnetic fields that reflect elevated blood oxygen levels.
 are preferable when doing research concerned with the localizing brain activity.  are preferable when dealing with the temporal (time) response of the brain to stimuli.
fMRI and PET, MEG and EEG
1. fMRI and PET
2. MEG and EEG
The  response occurs about 150 msec after a syntactic violation in music, and the  is triggered later by structural incongruities in both music and language.
Sloboda and colleagues reported that the two most important factors that motivate students to reach high levels of achievement in the study of a musical instrument.
Self=nurtured motivations, Parental involvment
Understanding music interpretation by trying to teach a computer to reproduce musical expression is called...
analysis by synthesis
Analysis by synthesis
Identify the two major expressive devices used by music performers.
basic structural form
Briefly describe two ways that musicians use performance expression to communicate musical structure. Your examples should come from Ch. 8 of the textbook, Music, Thought, and Feeling.
Emphasizing strong beats by slightly lengthening them.
Giving a slight pause before the start of a new phrase.
Explain the Mozart Effect
The "theory" that listening to one piece of music by Mozart causes an improved score on the spatial temporal IQ test.
True/False. A study by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) demonstrated that college students performed better on certain tests of spatial ability after listening to 10 minutes of a Mozart piano sonata.
Correlation vs. Causation
Looking at two things and comparing how they interact. (Correlation doesn't equal causation)
Explain relationship of music to other subjects using two studies.
Thompson, Schellenberg, and Hussain studied that music training might lead to increased sensitivity to speech prosody. 144 six-year olds were placed in four groups: weekly keyboard instruction, weekly singing lessons, weekly drama training, and no training. Drama lessons and keyboard lessons were equal in detecting emotion in speech prosody and were significantly better than those with no lessons.
Hetland: meta-analysis of 15 studies involving 701 children (aged 3-12) scored slightly higher on spatial-temporal tasks vs the controls. (Costa-Giomi) 9 year old children given piano lessons for a year scored higher on s-t tasks than the controls but not after 2 years of lessons. (Gromoko & Poorman) effects were larger on younger children but duration is not clear.
Identify parts of the brain and basic function: frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe.
Frontal lobe (front): higher cognitive functions
Temporal lobe (side): auditory processing
Parietal lobe (top): control of sensations. also associated with reading, math, and some music skills
Occipital lobe (back): visual perception
External Auditory Meatus
Semi Circular Canals