12 terms

Miller and Levine Chapter 8.1

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Cells
Basic unit of life
The Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function
New cells are produced from existing cells
Prokaryotes do not contain
nucleus
Eukaryotes have
nucleus
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
PROKARYOTES ("pro" = before, "karyon" = nucleus)
1. Unicellular: Bacteria and blue-green algae
2. No nucleus; nucleiod region with single
circular DNA; single chromosome;
3. Smaller
4. Cell wall in all
5. Ribosomes (30 & 50S)
6. No membrane-bound organelles
7. Transcription and Translation in cystosol

EUKARYOTES ("eu" = true, "karyon" = nucleus)
1. Unicellular or Multicellular: protists, fungi,
plants & animals
2. Nucleus; consist of mutiple chromosomes
3. Bigger
4. Cell wall ONLY in fungi & plants
5. Ribosomes (40 & 60S)
6. Membrane-bound organelles
7. Transcription in nucleus; Translation in cytosol

BOTH
1. Cytoplasm
2. DNA
3. Cell membrane
4. ribosomes
5. Carry out activities of living things
Organelle
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
endosymbiotic theory
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles (mitochondria and plastids) of modern-day eukaryotes
nucleus
A part of a eukaryotic cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
cell membrane
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended