English 12 First Semester 2018
Terms in this set (74)
technique used by a writer to convey or emphasize a message usually in writing poetry or a novel
any figure of speech which depends on a non-literal meaning of some or all of the words used.
irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.
use of words to mean something different from what a person actually says. It occurs in a conversation where a person intentionally aims to be understood as meaning something different to what his or her words literally mean.
obvious and intentional exaggeration
means to use/address/describe an object/idea or give life to an object/idea as if it is actually alive. Hamlet has used "Frailty" as a personification in this scene.
an indirect comparison between two things (often using the word like or as)
a direct comparison between two things (often using the word is)
a clause that modifies the principal clause or some part of it or that serves a noun function in the principal clause, as when she arrived in the sentence I was there when she arrived or that she has arrived in the sentence I doubt that she has arrived.
the action or process of talking about something, typically in order to to exchange ideas and increase knowledge before making a decision.
a formal discussion on a particular topic in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward in order to prove a point.
Soliloquy, an act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when by oneself . The actor is usually alone on stage and this is a speech longer than aside.
technique used by a writer or speaker to convey or emphasize a message meant to persuade or argue--special patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir emotion, especially in speeches or other oral presentations
appeals to logic/reason to persuade an audience
using reputation/credibility to persuade audience
using appeals to emotion/feelings to persuade
repetition of grammatical structure to create a rhythm and make words memorable
comparisons between two unlike things usually to help clarify meaning
words that appeal to the emotions
an acknowledgement of the opposition's argument
when used as a rhetorical device can minimize situations or threats
statement that seems to contradict but presents a truth
expressing the same idea in different words
questions with obvious answers, but make an audience think and reflect
the author's or speaker's attitude towards the audience
the repetition of the same sound or letter in words
formed when two or more adjectives are joined together to modify the same noun. These terms should be hyphenated to avoid confusion or ambiguity. For example: Diana submitted a 6-page document. She adopted a two-year-old cat.
ending a phrase with a word and starting the next phrase with the same word. Creates flow and connection between phrases.
repeating the same word at the beginning of each phrase
a reference in one story to a well,known character or event from another story, history, or place
occurs when incongruity appears between expectations of something to happen, and what actually happens instead.
is a writer's word choice. It can be a major determinant of the writer's style; can be described as formal or informal, abstract or concrete, plain or ornate, ordinary or technical.
call to a dead or an alive person or an abstract idea,
a literary device in a character speaks something when others are not listening, or he moves a bit away from them, or they go out. There are others on stage and this is just a few lines.
a figure of speech that fuses to contradictory ideas, such as "freezing fire" or "happy grief," thus suggesting a paradox in just a few words
a figure of speech in which a person, place, or thing is referred to by something closely associated with it. "Look upon Denmark as a Father" Denmark is used to represent the king.
when a single event or expression can mean two different things to two different people
Latin Root -bell
war (rebellion beligerent)
the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities (example: Ophelia's violets symbolize fidelity and The Ghost symbolizes hamlet's madness)
the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line couplet or stanza.
A character who acts as a contrast to another character. Often a funny side kick to the dashing hero or a villain contrasting the hero.
the objective meaning of a word /Dictionary definition
a subtle difference in or shade of meaning expression or sound.
unrhymed poetry usually written in iambic pentameter. Occasional variations in rythym are introduced in blank verse to create emphasis variety and naturalness of sound. Because blank verse sounds much like ordinary spoken English it is often used in drama as by Shakespeare, and in poetry.
writing or speech that appeals to one or more of the five senses
a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language; as happy/ joyful/elated.
a figure of speech in which a part represents the whole. "Now Hamlet hear. 'Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard A serpent stung me. So the whole ear of Denmark" The "ear of Denmark" means all the citizens heard this.
the associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning/a meaning that may be hidden (think of home vs. house or beautiful vs. cute)
a word opposite in meaning to another. Fast is an antonym of slow.
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century emphasizing inspiration/ sensory language/ a return to nature/ subjectivity/ and the primacy of the individual
style of writing that is characterized by elements of fear, horror, death, and gloom, as well as romantic elements, such as nature, individuality, and very high emotion. These emotions can include fear and suspense.
sentences in which to avoid unnecessary repetition words or phrases have been omitted as understood.
Poetry with the traits of Variable Stanza Lengths/ Simple Language/ Blank Verse/ Fluid Line Breaks/ enjambment
An archetype is a pattern found in literary works across time and place.
long formal lyric poem with a serious theme. It may have a traditional structure with stanzas grouped in threes. Often honor people commemorate event, or respond to natural scenes
unrhymed poetry, usually written in iambic pentameter. Occasional variations in rhythm are introduced in blank verse to create emphasis variety and naturalness of sound.
Catastrophe of a Literary Tragedy
the final action that completes the unraveling of the plot in a play especially in a tragedy.
Climax of a Literary Tragedy
occurs when there is a turning point from which there is no going back. The point of highest tension in a narrative. In a tragedy this will generally reveal the protagonist's greatest weaknesses and the situation will go irreparably wrong.
Latin prefix "in"
corresponding to English un-- having a negative or privative force. freely used as an English formative, especially of adjectives and their derivatives and of nouns ( inattention; indefensible; inexpensive; inorganic; invariable ).
Modernist Movement in Literature
describes an international movement in the arts during the early 20th century--rejected old forms and experimented with the new. They presented human experiences in fragments rather than as a coherent whole.
Direct Address in Literature
a construction in which a speaker or writer communicates a message directly to another individual or group of individuals. The person who is addressed may be identified by name/ nickname/ the pronoun you/ or an expression that's either friendly or unfriendly. Conventionally the name of the individual who's addressed is set off by a comma or a pair of commas.
a poem in which an imaginary character speaks to a silent listener
a narrative technique that presents thoughts as if they were coming directly from a character's mind. Instead of being arranged in chronological order the events are presented from a character's point of view .
writing that ridicules or holds up to contempt the faults of individuals or groups. Although a satire can often be humorous its purpose is not only to make readers laugh but also to correct and the flaws and shortcomings it points out
Latin root "-corp-"
meaning BODY. The word flies from the important detective story prop the CORPse to the big business the CORPORation.
"an interruption of the chronological sequence (as of a film or literary work) of an event of earlier occurrence." interruptions that writers do to insert past events in order to provide background or context to the current events of a narrative.
a style of writing that is used to report news stories in a variety of media formats. Obvious characteristics of the style include short simple sentences and paragraphs that present objective stories based on facts. Journalistic style is more objective and to the point.
Non linear Style
does not follow chronological order . may contain flashbacks/dream sequences/ or other devices that interrupt the chronological flow of events.
an arrangement of words that follows the way people usually speak or write. while unusual syntax is an arrangement of words that drifts away from the way people typically speak and write.
a narrative technique that presents thoughts as if they were coming directly from a character's mind. Imstead of being arranged in chronological order the events are presented from the character's point of view, mixed in with the character's thoughts just as they might spontaneously occur.
a narrator whose credibility has been seriously compromised. A reader should not trust the narration as 'fact'. Most unreliable narration occurs in the first person.
a sudden realization or flash of insight in which a character recognizes a truth
An ellipsis (plural ellipses) is a punctuation mark consisting of three dots. Use an ellipsis when omitting a word/ phrase/ line/ paragraph or more from a quoted passage. Ellipses save space or remove material that is less relevant.
Greek prefix a- or an-
meaning "not" from Latin a-- short for ab "away from"
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