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Final exam qs
Terms in this set (108)
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Breaking down of nutrients to generate ATP, CO2 and H2O is referred to as...
Nutrients may be classified/grouped based on the following criteria:
Whether they are a source of energy to the animal.
by the amount of the nutrient needed in the diet.
Whether their chemical structure contains carbon
A 'dispensable' nutrient:
does not need to be included in the diet.
can be synthesized by the animal.
is an essential nutrient.
_____ is the amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of 1 gm water by 1 degree C
Maintenance energy is the amount of energy that is:
needed for vital body functions at rest
Animals regulate their intakes based on their ___ requirements
Ribose and 2-deoxyribose are examples of:
_____ is a non-structural carbohydrate with linear alpha 1,4 linkages
_____ is a structural carbohydrate with linear beta 1,4 linkages
This reaction combines 2 monosaccharides to form a disaccharide
A medically important polysaccharide that prevents clotting in the blood
The initial step in the process of cellular respiration in animals is
in cellular respiration the final electron acceptor is;
Glycolysis occurs in the
Glycolysis results in the formation of...
Following the ingestion of a carbohydrate rich meal...
Beta cells of pancreas release insulin
_____ refers to the supply of glucose from non-carb precursors
before carbohydrates, proteins or fats enter the TCA cycle they must be converted to..
Which hormone is released by the alpha cells of the pancreas?
Majority of the excess glucose that is not oxidized by the liver is stored in..
adipocytes or adipose tissue
Excess water intake is medically referred to as..
The microbes that are present in the greatest concentration in the rumen are..
the primary and major source of energy for ruminants is..
short chain fatty acids
Rumen microbes ferment dietary carbs into which end products?
SCFA/VFA, Methane, and microbial cells
The main gluconeogenic fatty acid for ruminants is
feeding ruminants a high forage compared to a high grain diet will;
increase proportion of acetate
Which group of fatty acids play a critical role in providing insulation to nerve cells in the brain?
as the chain length of a fatty acid increases
it has a higher melting point
What is the simplest 2 C fatty acid?
Butter is a solid and olive oil is a liquid at room temp because;
oil has one double bond
a fatty acid with no double bonds;
is a saturated FA
a common saturated fatty acid found in animal fat is;
the carboxyl group of fatty acids ____ with glycerol to form triglycerides
The process of adding hydrogens to unsaturated fatty acids is referred to as:
_____ are small aggregates of mono and free fatty acids that are associated with the bile and serve to move lipids into epithelial cells in the brush border of the small intestine
Lipids are transported via the..
Excessive fatty acid oxidation during energy shortage results in ____ which can lower blood pH
_____ are misfolded proteins which characterize several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans
A sulfur containing amino acid that is essential for cats
The pair of amino acids that are primarily ketogenic include:
Lysine and leucine
In ruminants, this is the major source of protein for the animals;
A major end product of amino acid catabolism is ____ which can be toxic when present in high amounts in the body
a parent compound of most sterols and a critical component of cell membrane
Proteins are characterized as 'amphoteric' which means;
they can react both as a base and an acid
The protein structure of hemoglobin is a good ex of a;
an amino acid present in lowest amount relative to its requirement is;
a limiting amino acid
The liver content of vitamin A is highest in;
condition caused by extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency
the provitamin for Vitamin A is;
Dietary concentrations of vitamins are typically reported as;
In _____, 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to cholesterol rather than Vit D
This vitamin has hormone like activity;
This mineral is part of the 'glucose tolerance factor' and enhances the physiological binding activity of insulin to promote glucose entry into cells
Horses grazing grass pasture and fed a supplement high in ____ can experience a decrease in calcium absorption
stimulates hydroxylation to form 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol
Which feedstuff has the greatest amount of water content?
The provitamin for vitamin D2 in plants is;
Vitamin D enhances the absorption of this mineral
Oxidation of this nutrient results in greatest amount of metabolic water?
Loss of water vapor from lungs in exhaled air is mostly;
When glucose loses electrons and hydrogens it is;
When oxygen gains electrons and hydrogens it is;
Water molecules are polar, with partial ____ charges on the hydrogens, a partial ___ charge on the oxygen, and a bent overall structure
positive and negative
The cohesive and adhesive properties of water are responsible for;
Camels cope with extended periods of no access to water by;
mobilizing brown adipose tissue
High protein diets;
Vegetable oil is a good source of;
omega 6 fatty acids
____ can function as weak acids or weak bases depending on physiological pH
a pathologic condition leading to an excess of hydrogen production results in;
Who is famous for the pioneering work using direct calorimetry for measuring basal metabolic rates in guinea pigs?
Indirect calorimetry is based on the amount of ____ produced in chemical reactions as a function of O2 consumption and CO2 production
Subtracting fecal energy from feed energy provides an estimate of;
Digestible energy (DE)
Subtracting urinary and gaseous energy loss from digestible energy provides an estimate of:
Metabolizable energy (ME)
Heat loss from fermentation and nutrient metabolism is needed to estimate _____ from ME:
Net energy (NE)
Which of the following feed will result in the maximum heat of fermentation?
Although, cows better utilize fiber compared to pigs, cows are considered less efficient than pigs because:
Fiber digestion in the rumen results in methane production
To estimate crude protein, nitrogen (N) content of feed is typically multiplied by a factor 6.25. This is based on the assumption that proteins in general contain ___% N.
T/F? Compared to carbohydrates and lipids, proteins do not have a storage form in the body.
T/F? Protein quality reflects how closely feed amino acid content meets the amino acid requirements of the animal.
Your dog consumes 500 gm of feed daily. If the feed nitrogen content is 3.2 % what is the total amount of protein consumed by your dog?
If the protein content in the feces is 15 g then what is the total amount of protein absorbed
by your dog?
The amount of protein lost in the urine is 15 g. What is the total protein retained by your dog?
What is the biological value of the protein you fed to your dog?
What is the net protein value of the protein fed to your dog?
A nutritional problem with captive colobines fed lignified leaves where masses of undigested fiber obstruct the digestive tract resulting in mortality.
Which of the following animals is a foregut fermenter?
Which animal can consume fibrous feeds?
sheep, cow, horse
The enzyme complex that enables microbes to breakdown fiber and plant material is called:
The main source of metabolizable energy for herbivores is:
The main source of metabolizable protein for herbivores is:
This GI region is typically very similar across all species but generally shorter in carnivores
This salivary enzyme is present in omnivores like pigs but not carnivores like cats;
The region which separates the glandular and non-glandular parts of the equine stomach is called;
Parietal and chief cells are found in this region of the stomach;
A proteolytic enzyme synthesized by chief cells in the stomach of young animals that plays
a critical role to curdle or coagulate milk:
In addition to digestion and absorption what is another major role of the small intestine?
A major function of the villi and micro villi projections (brush border) surrounding the small intestinal epithelial cells is:
to increase absorptive capacity
the true stomach in birds is called the;
This region is present in the esophagus of birds and may be associated with some microbial
When making hay, fresh forage must be dried to reduce moisture content to:
Making hay results in nutrient loss associated with:
respiration, storage, feeding
Although mature plants have lower nutrient content they have greater ___ .
The growth of ___ is important to reduce pH and improve silage quality.
lactic acid bacteria
Whole cottonseed is a good source of protein and energy for ruminants but it has to be limit fed because of the presence of:
Soybeans are heat treated to:
deactivate trypsin inhibitors
A common source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) is:
A toxic compound found in molding sweet clover:
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ANS 230 Final
ANS 230 Exam 1
ANS Exam 2
ANS 230 Exam 3
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