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-pulling apart sounds and letters
-how language is put together
-connecting letters, sounds, patterns
-44 different sounds
-Ages 3-8

Alphabetic principle

-understand how the alphabet works
-know the order
-letters that make sounds and words
-knowing names and shapes of letters

Phonemic Awareness

abilities to notice and work with individuals sounds with spoken language

Phonological Awareness

understanding that spoken language is made p of individual and separate sounds


using letters on page to retrieve sounds associated with these letters


the opposite of decoding, the knowledge of letter sound relationship to identify letters that will be needed to make a specific word

Emergent Literacy

view that literacy begins at birth and is encouraged through participation


all activates involved in speaking, listening, writing, and reading, in appreciating spoken language

Top-Down Approach

whole to parts method--main idea is important, not necessarily the small parts reading a book--raising your hand when you hear the letter m

Bottom-Down Approach

parts to whole method--all little pieces=big whole--explain the bigger picture, writing m five times

Balanced Literacy Approach

combination of top down and bottom up approaches

Explicit Teaching

-Directly saying what you are going/want to teach the students
-Teacher thinks out loud tell students what they are going to do and helps them through the process

Implicit Teaching

Teaching concepts without directly saying what you want the students to do, objective not directly stated

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