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physical feature on the Earth's surface


deep cracks in the Earth's crust

active volcano

volcano that is currently erupting or recently erupted

extinct volcano

volcano that no longer erupts

shield volcano

broad base volcano built by thinner lava

cinder-cone volcano

volcano that has steep sides formed by thick lava thrown high in the air

composite volcano

built by layers of ash and cinders


point directly above a focus where waves of energy ripple outward


magma that reaches the surface


huge waves that hit land and are caused by earthquakes under the ocean


process through which weathered rock is moved from one place to another


gentle loops in slow-moving rivers


all the gases around Earth

inner crust

deepest layer of Earth


scientist that examines rocks

plate tectonics

theory that explains how forces deep within Earth can cause continents to move


force that occurs when plates of the Earth's crust are pushed into each other

Hawaiian Islands

formed by lava erupting from a hot spot under the ocean florr


amount of energy released by an earthquake


process through which rocks are broken down


formed by erosion of flowing water

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