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Terms in this set (47)
The field of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring.
The transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Distinguishing quality or characteristic.
Offspring that are produced with the same trait as the parent.
Denotes plants that are pure for a specific trait.
Parental generation strand.
The offspring of the P1 generation (cross of two parents).
The generation after F1 generation that self pollinate and collect seeds.
The factor that masks or dominates the other factor for a specific characteristic. (capital letter)
The trait that does not appear but is still there. (expressed in a homozygous condition/lower case letter)
A pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes.
Law of segregation
Factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently.
Law of Independent Assortment
Each of the several alternative forms of a gene.
The genetic makeup of an organism.
The appearance of an organism as a result of its genotype.
When an organism has both alleles of a pair alike for a certain characteristic.
When an organism has both alleles in a pair that are different for a certain characterisitic.
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits.
A diagram used to help biologists in predicting the probability that certain traits will be inherited by offspring.
The ratio of genotypes that appear in offspring.
The ratio of offspring's phenotypes.
When an individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual.
Sexual reproduction provides variation.
Family tree of traits.
In a family freckles are dominant and no freckles are recessive. Name what the homozygous recessive, homozygous dominant, heterozygous.
Homozygous Recessive - ff
Homozygous Dominant - FF
Heterozygous - Ff
Anything other than sex chromosomes. The first 22 chromosomes on a karyotype.
What are the genotypes for male and female.
Male - XY
Female - XX
Can men pass x-linked traits onto their sons?
No, because they only pass down the Y chromosome to their son.
How many different gametes can be formed from a cell with the genotype of AaBb.
4 - AB, Ab, aB, ab
Also known as blending is when two alleles are both expressed resulting in a phenotype that is a blend of the two traits. (Neither trait is completely dominant)
Two alleles for a gene are both expressed in a heterozygous offspring.
What is this example for? A horse with homozygous red hair is crossed with a homozygous for white hair - Their offspring is white hair with red hair interspersed.
Two pairs of contrasting traits at the same time which gives 4 alleles to look at.
What is this example for? Homozygous green inflated pod (GGII), and a homozygous yellow constricted pod (ggii).
Location of a gene on a chromosome.
Look over past worksheets. (Punnet Squares, X-linked disease, Blood type, incomplete dominance, pedigree, word problem for genotype and phenotype)
Gregor Mendel was the ___________ of ____________.
Father of Genetics
What plant did Mendel study?
Read over Mendel's experiment.
Name the characteristics of genes.
- Fundamentally identical to both type and amount in the cells of an organism
- Fundamentally identical in type and amount in each organism of a species
- Able to carry information for the formation of organic chemicals (biosynthesis).
- Able to reproduce itself (copy the information)
- Passed onto the next generation
- Found in the cells nuclear material
All of a person's cells have the __________ number and ___________ of genes.
What are the two factors that determine a species characteristics?
Genes and Enviroment
What is this example for? A homozygous red and homozygous white are crossed - pink offspring.
Have their links on the X or Y chromosome.
Sex linked traits
How many alleles can be on a single locus?
Carried on the X chromosome.
Individual that does not exhibit the characteristic but carries the gene.
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