Anthropology Cscc Final
Terms in this set (214)
Euprimates of the eocene that were likely ancestral to modern lemurs and posibly ancestral to anthropoids
changes in physical structure, function, or behavior that allowed an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment
the diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches
one of four nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA
AN important cellular molecule, created by the mitochondria and carrying the energy necessary for cellular function
The exchange of genetic material between two or more populations.
The third stage of life, involving the reproductive years and senescence.
A propliopithecid genus from the Oligocene, probably ancestral to catarrhines; the largest primate found in the Fayum, Egypt.
One or more alternative forms of a genne
The principle that an animal's limb lengths are heat-related; limbs are longer in hot environments and shorter in cold environments.
Refers to a behavior that beneﬁts others while being a disadvantage to the individual.
Amino Acid Dating
An absolute dating method for organic remains such as bone or shell, in which the amount of change in the amino acid structure is measured.
Organic molecules combined in a speciﬁc sequence by the ribosomes to form a protein.
Pertaining to an organism's physical structure.
Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis
The proposition that certain primate traits, such as visual acuity, occurred in response to the availability of fruit and ﬂowers following the spread of angiosperms.
Refers to any effect caused by humans.
Measurement of the human body.
Molecules that form as part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances; they attach to the foreign antigens.
Speciﬁc proteins, on the surface of cells, that stimulate the immune system's antibody production.
Tree-dwelling, adapted to living in the trees.
A suite of physical traits that enable an organism to live in trees.
The proposition that primates' unique suite o traits is an adaptation to living in trees.
Material objects from past cultures
An early australopithecine from East Africa that had a brain size equivalent to a modern chimpanzee's and is thought to be a direct human ancestor.
The oldest spe-cies of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to Au. afarensis.
Formerly known as Zinjanthropus boisei; a later robust aus-tralopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. robustus and Au. aficanus and had robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
A late australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. aficanus and Au. aethiopicus and was the likely ancestor to the Homo lineage.
A robust australo-pithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. afarensis, was contemporaneous with Au. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
A late species of aus-tralopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. aficanus, was a contemporary of Au. robustus, and expresses anatomical features found in Australopithe-cus and in Homo.
All chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occur in pairs in all somatic cells (not the gametes).
Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a speciﬁc gene in a population.
The principle that an animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies are adapted to hot environments, and larger bodies are adapted to cold environments.
Refers to lower molars, in Old World monkeys, that have two ridges
Refers to lower molars, in Old World monkeys, that have two ridges.
A relative dating method that uses the associations of fossils in strata to determine each layer's approximate age.
walking on two feet
An outdated, disreputed theory that the phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of the parents' phenotypes.
Organisms that move by brachiation, or arm-swinging.
A South American genus from the Oligocene, ancestral to platyrrhines.
Refers to hardened plaque on teeth; the condition is caused by the minerals from saliva being continuously deposited on tooth surfaces.
Canine- Premolar Honing Complex
The dental form in which the upper canines are sharpened against the lower third premolars when the jaws are opened and closed
The era lasting from 66 mya until the present, encompassing the radiation and proliferation of mammals such as humans and other primates.
Dating methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time.
The strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contains hundreds or thousands of genes.
A gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next.
Refers to two different alleles that are equally dominant; both are fully expressed in a heterozygote's phenotype.
The process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis.
Relative dating methods that are based on material remains' time spans
Learned behavior that is transmitted from person to person.
One of four nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA; it pairs with guanine
Evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and ﬁll gaps in scientiﬁc knowledge.
A chronometric dating method that uses a tree-ring count to deter-mine numerical age.
A disease process that creates demineralized areas in dental tissues, leading to cavities; demineralization is caused by acids produced by bacteria that metabolize carbohydrates in dental plaque.
The numerical description of a species' teeth, listing the number, in one quadrant of the jaws, of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
Characteristics present in only one or a few species of a group.
A space between two teeth
A diet's ﬂexibility in adapting to a given environment.
A cell that has a full complement of paired chromosomes.
Selection for one allele over the other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction.
selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution; may eventually lead to a speciation event
Refers to those organisms that normally are awake and active during daylight hours.
The process of converting wild animals or wild plants into forms that humans can care for and cultivate.
Refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype and that simultaneously masks the effects of another allele, if another one is present
Electron spin resonance dating
An absolute dating method that uses microwave spectroscopy to measure electrons' spins in various materials.
Veriﬁed through observation and experiment.
A genus of very small basal anthropoids from the Eocene.
Refers to heritable changes but without alteration in the genome.
Divisions of periods (which are the major divisions of eras) in geologic time.
A condition in which the system is stable, balanced, and unchanging.
A uniﬁed theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection.
Fission Track Dating
An absolute dating method based on the measurement of the number of tracks left by the decay of uranium-238.
Average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype.
A relative (chemical) dating method that compares the accumulation of ﬂuorine in animal and human bones from the same site.
Physical remains of part or all of once-living organisms, mostly bones and teeth, that have become mineralized by the replacement of organic with inorganic materials.
The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers.
Biological changes that occur during an individual's lifetime, increasing the individual's ﬁtness in the given environment.
Sexual reproductive cells, ova and sperm, that have a haploid number of chromosomes and that can unite with a gamete of the opposite type to form a new organism.
The basic unit of inheritance; a sequence of DNA on a chromosome, coded to produce a speciﬁc protein.
Admixture, or the exchange of alleles between two populations
All the genetic information in the breeding population.
The random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next, with greater effect in small populations.
The complete set of genetic information—chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA—for an organism or species that represents all the inheritable traits.
The genetic makeup of an organism; the combination of alleles for a given gene.
A genus of Miocene pongids from Asia; the largest primate that ever lived.
One of four nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA; it pairs with cytosine.
The time it takes for half of the radio-isotopes in a substance to decay; used in various radiometric dating methods.
A cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes; half of the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell.
A group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaced loci on a single chromosome.
Hardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium
A math-ematical model in population genetics that reﬂects the relationship between frequen-cies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes.
Iron—found in red meat, ﬁsh, and poultry—that the body absorbs effciently.
Refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different.
The maintenance of the internal environment of an organism within an acceptable range.
Refers to an organism's ability to maintain a constant body temperature despite great variations in environmental temperature.
Humans and humanlike ancestors.
The earliest Homo species, a pos-sible descendant of Au. garhi and an ancestor to H. erectus; showed the ﬁrst substantial increase in brain size and was the ﬁrst species deﬁnitively associated with the production and use of stone tools.
Refers to each set of paired chro-mosomes in the genome
Refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are the same.
The proposition that increasing allergies among children are the result of decreased exposure to microbes, such as those found in dirt.
A condition in which an organ-ism's body temperature falls below the normal range, which may lead to the loss of proper body functions and, eventually, death.
Testable statements that potentially explain speciﬁc phenomena observed in the natural world.
Less than usual sea-level amount of oxygen in the air or in the body.
Fossils that are from speciﬁed time ranges, are found in multiple locations, and can be used to determine the age of associated strata.
the killing of a juvenile
Two or more forms of a chemical element that have the same number of protons but vary in the number of neutrons
The characteristics of the chromosomes for an individual organism or a species, such as number, size, and type. The karyotype is typically presented as a photo- graph of a person's chromosomes that have been arranged in homologous pairs and put in numerical order by size.
Altruistic behaviors that increase the donor's inclusive ﬁtness, that is, the ﬁtness of the donor's relatives.
The production and secretion of milk from a female mammal's mammary glands, providing a food source to the female's young
First proposed by Lamarck, the theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics in which an organism can pass on features acquired during its lifetime.
A set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things (people, places, concepts, etc.) other than themselves.
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's second law, which asserts that the inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits.
Law of Segregation
Mendel's First Law, which asserts that the two alleles for any given gene (or trait) are inherited, one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of the two alleles will be present in each ovum or sperm.
The timing and details of growth events and development events from conception through senescence and death.
Refers to the inheritance, as a unit, of individual genes closely located on a chromosome; an exception to the law of independent assortment.
The location on a chromosome of a speciﬁc gene.
Large-scale evolution, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of generations.
The hypothesis that craniofacial shape change during the Holocene was related to the consumption of softer foods.
The part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments
General term for the large game animals hunted by pre-Holocene and early Holocene humans.
The production of gametes through one DNA replication and two cell (and nuclear) divisions, creating four haploid gametic cell
A brown pigment that determines the darkness or lightness of a human's skin color due to its concentration in the skin.
Melanin-producing cells located in the skin's epidermis
Refers to the onset of menstruation in an adolescent female.
The basic principles associated with the transmission of genetic material, forming the basis of genetics, including the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment.
The cessation of the menstrual cycle, signifying the end of a female's ability to bear children.
The molecules that are responsible for making a chemical copy of a gene needed for a speciﬁc protein, that is for the transcription phase of protein synthesis
Small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next.
Energy-producing (ATP) organelles in eukaryotic cells; they possess their own independent DNA.
The process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells.
Refers to a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring.
Physical shape and appearance
The stone tool culture in which Neandertals produced tools using the Levallois technique.
A random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism.
The process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the population.
The late Pleistocene/early Holocene culture, during which humans domesticated plants and animals.
Refers to those organisms that are awake and active during the night
Iron—found in lentils and beans—that is less effciently absorbed by the body than is heme iron.
An upper canine that, as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism, is not sharpened against the lower third premolar.
A genus of one of the largest adapids from the Eocene.
The building block of DNA and RNA, comprised of a sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen bases
The shift in diet to one that is high in saturated fat and sugar; a cause of the global obesity epidemic.
A cranial feature of Neandertals in which the occipital bone projects substantially from the skull's posterior
The stone tool culture associated with H. habilis and, possibly, Au. garhi, including primitive chopper tools.
The portion of the anterior brain that detects odors.
Eocene euprimates that may be ancestral to tarsiers.
Refers to primates' thumb, in that it can touch each of the four ﬁngertips, enabling a grasping ability.
Degenerative changes of the joints caused by a variety of factors, especially physical activity and mechanical stress.
Cells responsible for bone formation.
Cells responsible for bone resorption
The loss of bone mass often due to age, causing the bones to become porous, brittle, and easily fractured.
The earliest hominin inhabitants of the Americas; they likely migrated from Asia and are associated with the Clovis and Folsom stone tool cultures in North America and comparable tools in South America.
An absolute dating method based on the reversals of Earth's magnetic ﬁeld.
The time and energy parents expend for their offspring's beneﬁt.
The earliest stone tools, in which simple ﬂakes were knocked off to produce an edge used for cutting and scraping.
Inﬂammatory response of the bones' outer covering due to bacterial infection or to trauma
The physical expression of the genotype; it may be inﬂuenced by the environment.
The evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.
Paleocene organisms that may have been the ﬁrst primates, originating from an adaptive radiation of mammals.
Replacements of a single nitrogen base with another base, which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes.
Refers to a social group that includes one reproductively active female, several adult males, and their offspring.
Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes.
Refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their ffspring
Refers to the presence of two or more alleles at a locus and where the frequency of the alleles is greater than 1% in the population
Also known as a protein, a chain of amino acids held together by multiple peptide bonds.
A specialty within the ﬁeld of genetics; it focuses on the changes in gene frequencies and the effects of those changes on adaptation and evolution.
The second stage of life, beginning with birth, terminating with the shift to the adult stage, and involving substantial increases in height, weight, and brain growth and development.
A ﬁstlike grip in which the ﬁngers and thumbs wrap around an object in opposite directions.
A precise grip in which the tips of the ﬁngers and thumbs come together, enabling ﬁne manipulation
A tail that acts as a kind of a hand for support in trees, common in New World monkeys.
The ﬁrst stage of life, beginning with the zygote in utero, terminating with birth, and involving multiple mitotic events and the differentiation of the body into the appropriate segments and regions.
A group of mammals in the order Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including large brains, forward-facing eyes, ﬁngernails, and reduced snouts.
Characteristics present in multiple species of a group.
A genus of early Miocene proconsulids from Africa, ancestral to catarrhines.
The chemical reaction resulting in the conversion of L amino acids to D amino acids for amino acid dating.
The radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 14 C to 12 C is measured to provide an absolute date for a material younger than 50,000 years
The radiometric dat-ing method in which the ratio of 40 K to 40 Ar is measured to provide an absolute date for a material older than 200,000 years.
An allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype if two copies are present but is masked if the dominant allele is present
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes, resulting from a cross-over event.
Those genes that determine when structural genes and other regulatory genes are turned on and of for protein synthesis.
Proteins involved in the expression of control genes.
The process of copying nuclear DNA prior to cell division, so that each new daughter cell receives a complete complement of DNA.
Any circumstance that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material, such as when two populations are separated by a large body of water or a major mountain range.
The naked surface around the nostrils, typically wet in mammals
A single-stranded molecule involved in protein synthesis, consisting of a phosphate, ribose sugar, and one of four nitrogen bases.
The organelles attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, located in the cytoplasm of a cell; they are the site of protein synthesis.
The earliest pre-australopithecine species found in central Africa with possible evidence of bipedalism
A statement of fact describing natural phenomena
An empirical research method in which data are gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypotheses.
A phenotypic change over time, due to multiple factors; such trends can be positive (e.g., increased height) or negative (e.g., decreased height)
The pair of chromosomes that determine an organism's biological sex
A difference in a physical attribute between the males and females of a species
The frequency of traits that change due to those traits' attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.
A genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed and sickle-shaped, decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Variations in the DNA sequence due to the change of a single nitrogen base.
Diploid cells that form the organs, tissues, and other parts of an organ-ism's body.
A group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring.
Selection against the extremes of the phenotypic distribution, decreasing the genetic diversity for this trait in the population.
Stenos Law of Superposition
The principle that the lower the stratum or layer,
Layers of rock representing various periods of deposition
The process of matching up strata from several sites through the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties.
Any factor that can cause stress in an organism, potentially affecting the body's proper functioning and its homeostasis.
Genes coded to produce particular products, such as an enzyme or hormone, rather than for regulatory proteins.
Proteins that form an organism's physical attributes
The study of the deposition of plant or animal remains and the environmental conditions affecting their preservation.
Life-forms, including humans, that live on land versus living in water or in trees.
A set of hypotheses that have been rigorously tested and validated, leading to their establishment as a generally accepted explanation o speciﬁc phenomena.
A relative dating method in which the energy trapped in a material is measured when the object is heated
Anterior teeth (incisors and canines) that have been tilted forward, creating a scraper.
The theory that processes that occurred in the geologic past are still at work today.
Refers to the most recent part of the Old Stone Age, associated with early modern Homo sapiens and characterized by ﬁnely crafted stone and other types of tools with various functions.
The decrease in blood vessels' diameter due to the action of a nerve or of a drug; it can also occur in response to cold temperatures.
The increase in blood vessels' diameter due to the action of a nerve or of a drug; it can also occur in response to hot temperatures
Visual Predation Hypothesis
The proposition that unique primate traits arose as adaptations to preying on insects and on small animals
The principle that bone is placed in the direction of functional demand; that is, bone develops where needed and recedes where it is not needed.
Hominoids' pattern of lower molar cusps.