Lymphatic System (Ch 24)

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Lymph
interstitial fluid in lymphatic system
composition: blood plasma (minus clotting factors)
significance: accumulate without system
Edema
swelling of body tissues
function of lymph
drain excess interstitial fluid
dietary lipids
immune function
Lymph vessels
- return excess fluid
- low pressure system: backflow valves, thin walls
-lymph capillaries
-lymphatic vessels
-lymph ducts
lymph capillaries
- closed-ended tubes that are interspersed among most blood capillary networks
- among capillary beds
- one-way entry valves
- endothelium only
- lacteal
lacteal
"milk"
- located in small intestine and picks up interstitial fluid and transports dietary lipids and lipid soluble vitamins
lymphatic vessels
-three tunics
-one-way valves
-attach to nodes
-lymph passes through multiple nodes
lymph ducts
empty lymph back into the venous circulation
two ducts: right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
right lymphatic duct
location: right clavicle
returns the lymph into the junction of the right subclavian vein and the right internal jugular vein

drainage: right upper limb, upper right thorax and right side of the head
thoracic duct
-largest lymph vessel
-cisterna chyli > L2 > gets name from chyle it receives from small intestine
anterior to vertebrae
empties into left subclavian and left internal jugular v.
lymphatic nodules
-clusters of lymphatic cells
-function: immune function
-no connective tissue
-MALT- Mucosa Associate Lymphatic Tissue
-tonsils
MALT (Muscosa-associated lymphoid tissue)
large collection of lymphatic nodules of the mucosa of digestive, respiratory, genital and urinary tracts
function: confront pathagens
-Peyer's Patches> Ileum
Tonsils
function: trap material
-lymphocyte id
-location: palatine (2), lingual (2), pharyneal (adrenoid) (1)
lymph nodes
clusters of lymphatic cells
size: bound by capsule 1-25 mm
functions: filter antigens from lymph, initiate immune response: mechanism- produce B-lymphocytes. symptoms- may become swollen and tender
cluster of nodes
axillary- breast, axilla, upper limb
cervical- head and neck
inguinal- lower limb and pelvis
structure of lymph node
-bound by capsule
-divided into internal compartments > trabeculae
-nodules of lymphatic cells > core of proliferating B-lymphocytes
-afferent lymphatic vessels
-efferent lymphatic vessels
spleen
location: abdomen, left upper quadrant, ribs 9-11, convex lateral aspect, hilum
anatomy:
capsule> dense irregular connective tissue
trabeculae > functions partitions tissue
blood supply: splenic artery and vein
white pulp and red pulp
functions of spleen
-immune response
-blood and erythrocyte reservoir
-released during activity
-destroy bacteria, foreign debris
-destroy old erythrocytes and platelets
white pulp of spleen
located around central artery
tissue type: lymphatic cells
function: immune function
red pulp of spleen
located between arteries and venous drainage
-splenic sinusoids
-macrophages
-functions: hemolysis (deconstruction) and blood storage
-tissue type: reticular tissue
clinical (spleen)
-between the 9th and 11th ribs
-severe injury to ribs can damage spleen > puncture wounds
-other causes of rupture: increased abdominal pressure can rupture
-symptoms: severe hemorrhage and shock
-complication: repair is very difficult

-treatment: splenectomy so patient doesnt bleed out but loss of spleen is not life threatening

-result of treatment: function is taken over by other reticular organs (liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes)

-lasting side effects of treatment: greater incidence of bacterial infection
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