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Midterm: Church History
Terms in this set (276)
generally means "one who is sent" and can be used in reference to the twelve companions chosen by Jesus, also known as "The Twelve," the term refers to those special witnesses of Jesus on whose ministry the early Church was built and whose successors are the bishops
- the uninterrupted passing on of apostolic preaching and authority from the Apostles directly to all bishops
- it is accomplished through the laying on of hands when a bishop is ordained in the Sacrament of Holy Order as instituted by Christ
- the office of bishop is permanent, because at ordination a bishop is marked with an indelible, sacred character
a special gift or grace of the Holy Spirit given to an individual Christian or community, commonly for the benefit and building up of the entire Church
a personal, solemn promise of faithful love that involves mutual commitments and creates a sacred relationship
- Hebrew word for "anointed one"
- the equivalent Greek term is christos
- Jesus is the Christ and this term because he is the Anointed One
- the covenant or law established by God in Jesus Christ to fulfill and perfect the Old Covenant, or Mosaic Law
- it is a perfection here on earth of the Divine Law
- the law is called a law of love, grace, and freedom
- it will never end or diminish, and nothing new will be revealed until Christ comes again in glory
Providence of God
God's loving care throughout salvation history and in each individual life, bringing what is needed into every situation and even bringing good out of evil
from the Latin redemptio, meaning "a buying back," referring in the Old Testament, to Yahweh's deliverance of Israel and, in the New Testament, to Christ's deliverance of all Christians from the forces of sin
Jewish roots of Christianity
grows out of the Jewish religion
How is the Church both physical and spiritual?
- the building along with charitable act are physical
- the faith of the believers are spiritual
- the sacraments provide a visible sign of an invisible reality
Jesus' work of salvation through His Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension
What is Paschal Greek for?
What re the parallelisms between Pentecost and Jesus' Paschal Mystery?
- Pentecost is truly the birth of the Church
- Jesus had handed the church over when he was on the cross when he tells gives Mary to John
- Peter becomes the first Pope
What is the birth of the Church?
Pentecost and the Great Commission
- birthday of the Church
- means fiftieth day
- holiday on which we celebrate the coming of the Holy Spirit on the early followers of Jesus
- we use red as the liturgical color to signify the power and fire of the Holy Spirit
What happened at Pentecost?
the Holy Spirit came to the apostles and they started preaching
- when the Apostles were sent out to spread the word of Jesus and build the Church
- wanted to welcome everyone into a covenant with Jesus
- we are called to continue this
- goes along with Apostolic Succession
- also known as the Jews of the Diaspora
- more comfortable with Greek culture (read, wrote, spoke, and thought in terms of Greek culture)
- more open to interactions with non-Jewish neighbors
- urban, wealthy, and open minded
- products of Hellenism so they could trade easier
Jews of Palestine
- isolated from non-Jewish neighbors
- rural, poor, and less educated
- went back to Jerusalem
- do not have the supplies to trade so they provide everything for themselves
Dogma of the Church
- Mary as Mother of the Church because she was Christ's mother
- given this title in 1964 by Pope Paul VI
- truly the first disciple and mother of all other disciples
- by acknowledging this, we become one with her son, Jesus Christ
- is the central mystery of our Church
- no one knows everything about it
- can only be revealed through Divine intervention by God
- is also the origin of all things
What was the key moment in Jesus' ministry?
- Jesus' Baptism
- he does not have sin so he does not have to be baptized
- his choosing to get baptized shows his humanity and humility
- is the start of his ministry
the people of the Way
- were the early members of the Church
- the term Christian was first said at Antioch when non-Jewish people were joining the Church
- leads us into the conflicts of allowing Gentiles to enter the faith without becoming Jewish first
- were called this because Jesus is the way
Deposit of Faith
- the heritage of faith contained in Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition
- it had been passed on from the Apostles
- the Magisterium takes it all that it teaches as revealed truth
- the free and undeserved gift of God's loving and active presence in our lives, empowering us to respond to his call and to live as his adopted sons and daughters
- restores our loving communion with the Holy Trinity, lost through sin
the Church's lining teaching office, which consists of all bishops, in communion with the Pope, the bishop of Rome
- from the Latin tradere, meaning "to hand on"
- refers to the process of passing on the Gospel message
- it began with the oral communication of the Gospel by the Apostles, was written down in the Sacred Scripture, and is interpreted by the Magisterium under guidance of the Holy Spirit
What two events influenced the Church's growth?
Saul's conversion and St. Peter's decision
- he began persecuting Christians by handing them over to be imprisoned
- on his way to Damascus, Saul saw God in a vision and followed God's instructions which led him to be baptized
- his conversion is marked by the changing of his name to Paul
- under his new name, he became known as the Disciple to the Gentiles
- he met with the Gentiles when Jewish people rejected his teachings
- his original name was Saul of Tarsus
St. Peter's decision
was made under the guidance of the Holy Spirit to allow the Gentiles to be Baptized without first converting to Judaism
What did early believers think about Jesus' coming and what was their approach to their faith and how they loved their lives?
- it would come about during their lifetime
- it caused them to focus on serving others, working together, sharing, and obtaining less material possession
Why are Saints Peter and Paul known as the Pillars of the Church?
they held the Church up and carried it (the Church is built on them)
What is the feast day of Saints Peter and Paul?
What is the significance of how St. Paul was killed?
he was beheaded because he was a Roman citizen and it was seen as a more humane way to die compared to crucifixion
What is the significance of how St. Peter was killed?
he was crucified like Jesus
the Mission of St. Peter
- moves the Church forward by replacing Judas and giving witness to Jesus at Pentecost
- decides to welcome Gentiles as well as Jews into the Church
- is the first Pope
- made difficult decisions under the guidance of the Holy Spirit
How can the way early Christians viewed their faith be compared to other religions?
- they think Jesus is coming back in their life time, so they give everything away to be closer to God
- the Jews are currently waiting for the Messiah
The Council of Jerusalem
- was called by Paul
- Paul, Barnabas, apostles, and the leaders of the Church were present
- was called to discuss the important matter of welcoming the Gentiles into the Church
- ended with James' compromise which was rooted in the Old Testament and was meant to please everyone
- compromise made it to where some Jewish regulations would be followed, such as avoiding idols, unlawful marriage, and the meat of strangled animals and blood
friend of God
What is the significance of Antioch?
- it is where the term Christian was first used
- was the starting place for three of Paul's missions
What were the three stages of the formation of the New Testament?
- the life and teaching of Jesus
- the oral tradition
- the written books
the life and teaching of Jesus
Jesus lived and taught among us until his Ascension
- the Apostles handed on what Jesus had said and done in their writing
- they had a fuller understanding of the importance of what Jesus did
- their understanding became clearer with the Resurrection of Christ and the guidance of the Holy Spirit
- the inspired authors selected certain elements from what had been handed on either oral or written to bring us the truth about Jesus
- these written accounts became what we know today as the New Testament
- nothing was written down until after Jesus has ascended
- the Apostles realized that they will not always be around to teach so they either wrote down their teachings or told them to someone who eventually wrote them down
How were the teachings of Jesus authenticated?
through the formation of the New Testament
What makes up the Deposit of Faith?
sacred scripture and tradition
What are the similarities and differences between the Catholic and Protestant Bibles?
- the have the same amount of books in the New Testament
- the Catholic bible has seven more books in the Old Testament than Protestants
- Catholic Bible: 46 books in the Old Testament
- Protestant Bible: 39 books in the Old Testament
What are the four criteria used for books to be accepted into the Bible?
- community acceptance
- all four of these must be met
based on the preaching and teaching of Apostles and their closes companions and disciples
Christian community had to accept a book as valid and consistent with their beliefs and practices
early Christians were using this book in their liturgical celebrations, most importantly, the Eucharist
- book's message had to be consistent with Hebrew writing and other Christian writings
- it could not contradict what was already accepted as the Word of God
- one who speaks or writes in defense of someone or something
- they argued for the reasonableness of their faith, they risked their lives rather than deny their beliefs
College of Bishops
the assembly of bishops, headed by the Pope, that holds the teaching authority and responsibility in the Church
witness to the saving message of Christ through the sacrifice of one's life
a synonym for "elder" in the Acts of the Apostles and an alternative word for "priest" today
the belief in one god
the belief in many gods
What kind of religions were the Early Romans?
they were polytheistic and also worshiped the emperor
Why did the persecution of early Christians start?
the emperor Nero burned down Rome and blamed it on the Christians
the persecution of early Christians
- the Romans had a religious and governmental policy in place that mandated the worship of many gods ans the emperor
- the Jews were given permission not to Roman gods, but Christians were not
- Christianity was entering Gentile territory because many of them were Gentiles, so they were not exempt
- the Romans considered the Christians a threat to the established order
How did persecutions strengthen the Church and cause it to grow?
- it showed how many followers were willing to give up their life for their faith instead of denouncing it
- this interested others because they wanted to know what was so important that people would give up their life for it
What was the role of Martyrs in helping the Church grow?
through their courage and integrity, they proclaimed their faith by giving up their lives
Why did the Church appeal to intellectuals?
the basic goodness of the Christian way of life was appealing to people who were looking for spiritual values as an alternative to cruelty as entertainment and to the worship of corrupt and sadistic emperors
What did Tertullian say?
"The Blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians"
Why is Sunday the official day of rest?
Emperor Constantine made it this day in order to honor the resurrection of Christ
Liturgy of the Word
- instruction time where scripture is read and discussed
- includes reading from the Old Testament, New Testament, and Gospel
Liturgy of the Eucharist
- community comes together to celebrate and break bread
- includes the offering, Eucharistic prayer, and the distribution of the Eucharist
How did the tradition of collecting money get established in the Church?
people would bring offerings to be redistributed to marginalized members of the society that the Roman Empire did not take care of
- majority of deacons
- ordained into the deaconate approximately one year prior to being ordained a priest
- restored by the Second Vatican Council
- men are ordained deacons for life
establishment of deacons
- originated because someone needed to distribute food to widows and others in needs
- the first one was St. Stephen who was called on by the Apostles
Incorporating pagan philosophy in Christianity
- a lot of our practices have pagan roots
- the Christian church grows because the Christians are recruiting pagans with pagans words
Doctors of the Church
- originally 4 in the East and 4 in the West
- canonized men and women
- 4 women
- defend the Church
examples of Doctors of the Church
- St. Jerome
- St. Ambrose
- St. Basil the Great
- St. Augustine
- St. Teresa
- St. Terese
- St. Hildegard
- St. Catherine of Siena
Fathers of the Church
- canonized men
- 90 total
- 31 in the West
- 59 in the East
- formulate the teachings of the Church
examples of Fathers of the Church
- St. Jerome
- St. Augustine
- St. Ambrose
- men and women
- do not have to be canonized
- defend the Church
examples of Apologists
- St. Ignatius of Antioch
- St. Justin Martyr
- St. Irenaeus
Who spread the Gospel to Jews?
Who spread the Gospel to Gentiles?
What is the role of bishops?
- one mission is to portray the word of God
- confirm people, designate priests to churches, and visit every school for one full school day
What is the role of presbyters?
- are not part of the apostolic succession unless they are ordained a bishop
- share in the mission of the bishops but do not have their authority
- a heresy developed in the late third century that denied Christ's full divinity, stating that Christ was a created being who was superior to human beings but inferior to God
- created by Arias
- denies the hypostatic union
- thinks that Jesus is not a human and not a god, but somewhere in between
having the same nature or essence
a gathering of the Church's bishops from around the world convened by the Pope or approved by him to address pressing issues in the Church
the union of Jesus Christ's divine and human natures in one Divine Person
- a Greek word meaning "word"
- it is the title of Jesus Christ found in the Gospel of John that illuminates the relationship between the three Divine Persons of the Holy Trinity
a Greek title for Mary meaning "God bearer"
the version of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek into Latin by Saint Jerome and which became the definitive version and officially promulgated by the Church
- believed everything his mom told him
- built a church where his mother told him the cross Jesus was crucified on was
- believed his dreams tell him about the world
- thinks that he is sidekick whose powers work when he is asleep
- very strong military leader
- gave himself the title Potifex Maximus (means the greatest bridge builder) which was for Popes
- saw the value and importance of embracing Christianity even though he did not fully convert until he was on his death bed
- even though he favored Christianity, he also allowed non-Christians to continue with their own traditions
- saw himself in the role of bridging his people to the heavenly
- the Roman Empire's embracing of Christianity during his reign is considered one of the most significant events in Church history and in all history
What did the Edict of Milan do for the Christian communty?
- Church leaders didn't just guide isolated groups but were called upon to provide guidance in secular affairs as well
- empire's leaders looked to the Church ant its leadership to maintain
- Christians who wanted to give their all for Christ sacrificed comforts of life in Christ's name by going out in isolated spots
- Christian worship became a public ceremony; Christian missionaries spread not only the Christian faith but also Roman civilization
What were the results of the Edict of Milan?
- clergy were exempt from paying taxes because they were seen as needing to assist the government
- Christian property that had been confiscated was being returned
- Constantine was commissioning the building of churches in many parts of the empire, especially Rome and Palestine
After the legalization of Christianity, how did people give their all to God?
they willingly isolated themselves in order to get closer to God
heresy that rejected the title Theotokos
-the largest group of Cathusians
What was the Church's response to heresies?
by calling councils
- is the symbol Constantine saw in a dream and added to his soldiers' uniforms
- is the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek
- Constantine believed that if he won the battle then he will become emperor (this is what happened)
How did the Church fill the leadership void when the empire couldn't?
- it provided food, shelter, and clothing
- it provided modern day schools and adult education
- St. Augustine's mom
- prayed her whole life that Augustine would convert
- spent her life discovering holy places touched by Jesus
- she allegedly discovered the cross Christ was crucified on (almost 300 years after he died)
- mother of Constantine
Church of the Holy Sepulcher
the church Constantine built on the site where Christ's cross was found
- thriving politically and economically
- civilization and Christianity flourished
- spoke Greek
- was wealthy
- capital was Constantinople
- invested in the arts and architecture
- the people are products of Hellenization
churches in the East
- Eucharistic liturgy focused on God's Kingdom and the end of time
- wall separated altar from the rest of the church
churches in the West
- Christ's sacrifice was emphasized with the altar as a focal point during the liturgy
- this is what we have today
- experienced both destruction and development
- had stronger ties in between church and state as people looked to religious leaders to fill in for political rolls because most political forces were in the East
- architecture was simpler
- was susceptible to invasion by normadic tribes
- had a weak military
- spoke Latin
- wants to be more like the East
- the capital was Rome
- the whole society is crumbling
- are being defeated by the people in the North
Who are the four female Doctors of the Church?
- St. Theresa of Avila
- St. Hildegard of Bingeh
- Catherine of Siena
- St. Therese of Liseux
the Church in the 4th and 5th centuries
beliefs about Jesus' divinity and humanity, the Holy Trinity and the Blessed Virgin Mary, are clarified at this time
Council of Nicaea
- was convened to respond to the heresy Arianism
- was the first ecumenical council
- began writing the Nicene Creed
- 21 councils total
-depends on how diverse the population of the room is (reflects the population of the Church)
- 20 of the 21 councils did not have women or non-Catholics
What is a Church council?
When the Pope and Bishops gather together to discuss issues of faith, morality and/or liturgy.
Council of Constantinople
- Nicea did not bring an end to the spread of heresies so this council was called to confirm the teachings of Nicea
- recondemned Arianism along with other heresies
- finished the Nicene Creed
- adds Constantinople as a patriarch city
denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit
Council of Ephesus
decreed that Mary is Theotokos, Mother of God, because her Son, Jesus, is both God and man
Council of Chalcedon
- proved that the hypostatic union is accurate and has always been true
- developed the theology of the hypostatic union of the inseparable human and divine natures in the one Divine Person of the Jesus Christ
- some Eastern churches began separating over doctrinal disputes arising out of this council and the Council of Ephesus
- added Jerusalem as a patriarch city
What are the Patriarch cities?
Rome (head of the Church), Alexandria (where the Library of Alexandria was), Antioch (where the term Christian was first used), Jerusalem (where the temple was), and Constantinople (head of the government)
How the Eastern Patriarchs develop?
- are made up of the five cities that matter the most in the ancient world
- the city as a whole was the patriarch
- early church identified three (Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch) and the other two were added in councils
Which two ecumenical councils produced the Nicene Creed?
the Councils of Nicea and Constantinople
the invasions by Visiogoths
- left the city of Rome in ruins
- caused Augustine to write the City of God
How did the capital being moved from Rome to Constantinople affects the empire?
- the Church and the government were no longer in the same place
- the Church was cut off from the "important people," the money, and a lot of the experiences and decisions that come with being close to the capital
- the Church does not have as much representation
St. Augustine's City of God
suggest that there is an earthly city (selfish) and a heavenly city (united with God)
the Byzantine Empire
- continued to thrive after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West
- Emperor Justinian defeated many barbaric tribes
- commissioned by Emperor Justinian to show how much he loved God
- means Holy Wisdom
- served as the center of Eastern Christianity for 900 years
What are some basic characteristics the Fathers of the Church share?
- are generally recognized for maintaining theological position within accepted doctrinal boundaries, and they often helped to set those boundaries (picked a side and stuck to it)
- they lived holy lives, some to an exceptional degree
- their writings and teachings have been approved by the Church and have helped shape her teachings
the superior and spiritual leader of a monastery
a person claiming to be pope in opposition to the Pope chosen in accordance with Christian law
the church's sphere of power and authority both politically and spiritually during the Middle Ages
a system that evolved in Western Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries in which society was ordered around relationships, derived from the holding of land in exchange for service and protection
a Germanic tribe that inhabited the Rome provinces of Gaul (roughly coinciding with modern day France) starting in the 6th century
a person who lives a solitary life in order to commit himself or herself fully to prayer and in some cases to be completely free to be of service to others
- a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with artwork such as decorated initials, borders and illustrations, often using gold and silver
- during the Middle ages, manuscripts were copied and illuminated by hand, work often done by monks
an official letter or charter issued by the Pope named for the bulla or waxed seal that was used to authenticate it
the buying or selling something spiritual such as a grace, a Sacrament or relic
What is the development of monasticism?
- it began when St. Anthony left society to live in the desert as hermit
- Pachomius then took his ideas and organized a monastery
Saint Anthony of Egypt
- led a life of prayer, meditation, and penance in a desert cave in Egypt
- believed people in the world are distracted from God
- was introverted
- left the cave for basic necessities
- lives there so he can pray and be at peace to serve God
What is the common goal of monks?
growing in holiness and giving up worldly comforts for Christs and they were centered around a spiritual leader
What were the first monasteries like?
- enclosed by a wall
- has a lot of small buildings
- had one way in and one way out
- the first one was called the Pachomian Monastery
What are the vows of monks?
- obedience to a superior
What threatened the survival of early Church writings?
the persecutions of the Christians
What preserved the early Church writings?
education (which was scarce) and secret churches in homes
St. Benedict of Nursia
- twin sister was St. Scholastica
- also recognizes a need that people need to withdraw from society
- wants community
- gets a group together and develops what we call today the Rule of St. Benedict and it takes things in moderation
- creator of the Benedictine monks
- people loved this way of thinking
What were the rules of St. Benedict?
- moderation in all things
- instead of fasting, eat 2 meals a day
- balance between work and prayer
- little wine instead of no wine
- his rule became the standard for Western monasticism and the model for religious life in the Church
- sits atop a hill halfway between Rome and Naples
- is St. Benedict's Monastery
- they made their own clothing and grew their own food
- everything they needed was there so there was no need for them to leave
- she was St. Benedict' twin sister
- she led the group of women seeking the monastic life and formed a community not far from Monte Cassino
- she taught monks and nuns to read so that they could read and understand their daily prayers and scripture
How did monasteries help the Church and society?
- they Christianized Europe, bringing Christ to countless people
- they preserved Western knowledge and learning by promoting learning for the monks and by copying the great secular and religious writings of earlier centuries
- developed new and effective agricultural, wool production, and vine-growing techniques
- when a formal system for education collapsed with the fall of the Western Empire, they became local centers for learning and provided education through the establishment of monastery schools
- visited by the angel Gabriel
- he is revealed things sent by God through Gabriel
- has been exposed to ideas of Christianity and Islam
- where Muhammad is from
- trading city (goods and ideas)
- written by Muhammad
- is all of the revelations revealed to him
where Mohammed moved to when Meccan officials were persecuting Muslims (this is known as the hijra and marks year one of the Muslim era)
People of the Book
- Christians and Jews
- believed in the Old Testament
- not harmed by the Muslims (let them exist and didn't try to convert them)
What is the key difference between Christianity and Islam?
- Islam: Jesus is a prophet so he is just human
- Christianity: Jesus is fully divine and fully human
What three patriarchs fell as a result of Islam? (became Islamic)
What does Islam mean?
submission to the will of God
What happened at the Battle of Tours?
the Franks stopped Muslims from invading Western Europe led by their king, Charles Martel
What accounted for Islam's success?
- it offered order and stability in non-Christian regions marked by tribal divisions and warfare
- it offered cohesive cultural, political, and theological system that did not leave a void for the Church to fill
What were incentives for people to convert to Islam?
- heavy taxation on non-Muslims
- the inability to hold a political job
Did Islam force conquered areas to convert?
What were the consequences on Christendom of Islam's success?
they lost a lot of their land
What led to the growing relationship between the Church and secular rulers?
- Pepin asked Pope Zachary to crown him as the King of the Franks because he think it will legitimize his rule
- the Pope has the Bishop Boniface crown him king
the Donation of Pepin
- in subsequent years, Pepin's forces defeated the Lombards and returned to the Pope territories the Lombards had captured
- in 756, the Pope granted his own territory called the Papal States
- the Pope needed an army and he uses Pepin's army
- the legacy of this today is seen with the Swiss Guard protecting the Vatican
- throughout all of history, someone has always stepped up to protect the Vatican and the Pope
- the Papal States lasted for over 1100 years until 1870 when Italy becomes one unified country
the Papal States
- an independent country ruled by the Pope until 1870, covering a wide strip of land in the middle of the Italian peninsula
- these were awarded to the papacy in 156 in a formal deed called the Donation of Pepin
- also known as Karl and Charles the Great
- was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814
- is the son of Pepin the short and Berrtrada
- was given the best the world had to offer by his parents
- fluent in Greek and Latin and understood many other languages (allows him to communicate better with others)
- in 771, he became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany
- he embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom and converted his subjects to Christianity
- was able to accurately predict what was going to happen next, most of the time (helped him conquer more land)
- has tons of book sense but no common sense
- is able to use his strengths to benefit him and does this well
- he spent the majority of his reign engaged in military campaigns
Holy Roman Emperor (HRE)
the title given to Charlemagne by Pope Leo III at Christmas Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome in 800 AD
How did Charlemagne's education affect other parts of his life?
he was so well educated that it carried over into other aspects of his life
What caused the decline of Charlemagne's Empire?
- following his death, the empire was split up by his sons and suffered from renewed Viking invasions and ineffective leadership
- the empire officially ended with the death of Charles the Fat in 888
- His dad was Pepin
- Charlemagne had 17 children
- his three successors led to the end of the empire
- the Scandinavian explorers merchants, and warriors who invaded and settled in Europe from the late 8th to the 11th centuries
- usually consisted of strong, unmarried men
- they went to Rome when it was weak and tried to marry Roman women, but had to convert in order to do so
How did the position of the Pope change?
the Donation of Pepin made the Pope a ruler of land as well as a spiritual leader
a pope that campaigned against simony (buying grace) and lay investiture (lay people, such as kings, appointing bishops, priests, and other members of the clergy) and the marriage of clergy
- with abbots and bishops answering to secular powers, maintaining the Church's commitment to the Gospel and her mission became difficult
- the laders have left so there is no order in the monasteries
- in the 900s duke founded a Benedictine monastery in Cluny, France, which was unusual in its requirement tat the monastery be independent of any secular ruler
- they adapted Benedict's rules at the monasteries founded as a result of the reform
What changes did the cluniac reforms make?
- live simply
- pray long and devoutly
- performed charitable works for the poor
- inspired others to take the Gospel message seriously
Concordat at Worms
- controversy over lay investiture was resolved with this
- the emperor Henry V agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops
- all bishops would be elected and consecrated by Church authority
Latin for "and from the Son," this phrase was added to the Nicene Creed in the Roman Church to express that the Holy Spirit descended from the Father and the Son, rather than from the Father and through the San as the Byzantine Church expressed
- the father of a group or tribe
- spiritual father
- the title is given to the highest-ranking bishops in the Church
a person who regularly has an intense experience of the presence and power of God, resulting in a deep sense of union with him
Great Western Schism
a split with the Church that lasted 39 years (from 1378-1417), when there were two or three claimants to the papacy at once; is also called the Papal Schism
the mean by which the Church takes away the punishment that a person would receive in Purgatory
- a reform movement that emerged in the Church in the fourteenth century that held that final authority in spiritual matters rested with church councils, not with the Pope - Conciliarism emerged in response to the Avignon Papacy
What kind of differences plagued the East and the West?
- Arian heresy
- Nestorian heresy
- relationships between Church and State
- Iconoclast Controversy
- denies the doctorate that surrounds the Theotokos
- does not believe it because no Pope has said it
- condemned by the Council of Chalcedon
What controversy did canon 28 cause?
it judged that the See of Constantinople should be ranked after Rome, because the bishops viewed Constantinople as the New Rome
What was the differences between East and West regarding the role of the emperor and councils?
- East: believe that a government official (emperor) should play some role in the Church
- West: believe the Pope should have the final say (supremacy) in the Church, declared by Henry V
- begins because a Byzantine Emperor, Leo III, says that by having these icons in the statues, people will worship them which will lead to idolatry
- art works were destroyed or painted over
- the Pope does not agree and says these works of art are an important part of our Christian identity
the deliberate destruction of religious icons and symbols
What did the Council of Nicaea say about the Iconoclast Controversy?
- that the East and Emperor Leo III were wrong
- having statues does not mean idolatry
What is the filioque controversy?
- West: believe in this (and from the son); Pope
- East: believe the translation should be and through the son; Emperor Photius
What did the East and West agree on?
they accepted the Pope as the Bishop of Rome as the successor of Peter
What caused the final break between the East and West?
- decisive split in 1054
- Pope Leo IX sent delegates with a papal bull that said Patriarch Michael Ceralarius and everyone in the East must submit to the the Pope
- Ceralarius rebelled against this
- the envoy with the papal bull could not convince him, so they excommunicated him even though they had no power to do so (but the Pope is okay with this)
- Cerularius then excommunicated the Pope
- a synod was called with all of Cerularius' yes men and declared him supremacy in the East
How did Cerularius rebel against the Pope's papal bull?
- he closed all the Latin churches
- excommunicated all priests following Latin traditions
- stopped the use of filioque in the Nicene Creed
What happened in 1964?
Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagorus I lifted the mutual excommunications of 1054
the First Crusade
- in 1095, Pope Urban recruited soldiers from his homeland in France, during the Council of Clermont to lead expedition against the Turks
- asked for volunteers an people volunteered without knowing what they were doing
- he sends them to war with no military training
- with the Pope's blessing this crusade set off in 1096 to Jerusalem to help the Byzantium church and to take back Jerusalem
the results of the First Crusades
- some territories were recovered upon reaching Jerusalem
- they massacred Jews and Muslims
- was a success militarily, but not morally
the survivors of the First Crusade
- were named defenders of the faith
- were granted indulgences (the Church saying they will fake away your time in purgatory)
the Second Crusade
- happened because territories that had been won in the First Crusade fell back to the Muslims
- happened 48 years later
- fails horribly
- Muslims end up conquering more land
the Third Crusade
- the three people who launched this crusade and King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, Philip II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
- Christians can no longer go to Jerusalem
- is successful in granting Christians the right to visit Jerusalem
the Fourth Crusade
- Pope Innocent III called this crusade early in his papacy to assert his power
- the crusaders sailed to Constantinople and broke city walls
- they destroyed the entire city including all of the churches, which were Eastern Orthodox, homes, and hundreds of innocent people
- because of this we are no longer a united Church
the Children's Crusade
- thousands of children marched along the seacoast to set sail to the Holy Land
- they thought no one would fight the children
- thought to be 5,000-10,000 children
the outcome of the Children's Crusade
- the children never made it to the Holy Land
- most died from starvation
- survivors were abducted and sold into slavery
- the last Christian stronghold in Muslim territory to fall was Acre (modern day Israel)
the outcomes of the Crusades
- they were a minor success militarily
- the Crusaders brought back many goods and inventions
- through contact with Muslim scholars, they learned of advances in astronomy, mathematics, and science
- they brought back the works of Greek philosophers which influenced the scholastic of the 12th and 13th centuries including works by Thomas Aquinas and St. Theresa of Avila
- these discoveries would bring about profound changes, eventually leading to the period of the Renaissance
members of a religious order of men who serve the Church through teaching or preaching
the main body of a church or cathedral, where the assembly gathers
members of religious orders that rely on charity for support
- established by St. Clare of Assisi in 1212 under the guidance of St. Francis
- lived in a monastery and their lives consisted of prayer and manual work (modifying the rule of St. Benedict)
- first order to have their rule written by a woman
- was renamed after St. Clare's death to the Order of Saint Clare
method of teaching, thinking, and writing devised in and characteristic of the Medieval University of Europe; concerned with all of scientific learning mostly identified with knowledge about God; based on the principle that faith and reason can be reconciled
St. Clare of Assisi
- lived from 1194-1253
- often depicted carrying a monstrance; according to legend she prevented an attack on a monastery in 1240 by carrying the Eucharist
- established her first convent in 1212 under St. Francis' guidance
- grew up with a lot of independence and knows she has the capability to go out and start her own religious order (not typical for women in this era)
St. Thomas Aquinas
- was a student of Albert the Great, a German Dominican Friar
- scholar recognized for his comprehensive knowledge and writings on science and religion
- was called a "Dumb Ox" by his classmates because of his slow movements and quiet seriousness
- became one of the greatest medieval theologians and one of the most influential scholars in the Church's history
- his masterpiece, the Summa Theologica, was a twenty one volume work in which he shows the theological relationship between faith and reason
- was a Dominican friar
- develops a line of questioning
a twenty one volume work in which he shows the theological relationship between faith and reason; written by St. Thomas Aquinas
- the part of the cathedral that contains the high altar where the Eucharistic sacrifice would be offered
- Bishop's Cathedra (chair), which symbolizes his power and authority, along with the pulpit are located here
Which pope's reign marked the declineof the Papacy?
Pope Boniface VIII from 1249-1303
Which two leaders marked the period of the decline of the Papacy and why
- Edward I of England and Philip II of France (both called the Third Crusade)
- they wanted to tax the clergy to assert their authority
What was the threat to the papacy?
the Pope loosing power to secular rulers
How did King Phillip II retaliated against Boniface?
he was the king during the Avignon Papacy and encouraged it
What is nationalism?
- the Avignon Papacy
- they wanted the Pope to be French
- they then elect ten new Cardinals, nine of whom are French
the Avignon Papacy
- European Christians believed the Pope, as successor of Peter and the Bishop of Rome, where the papacy also enjoyed military and financial independence
- prior to the papacy moving to France, the French arrested the Pope
- he died a short while later and then France elects a new Pope, Pope Clement V two years later
- the headquarters moved to Avignon, France where the pope lead an affluent lifestyle because of the surroundings
- Pope Clement V was a weak Pope who was dominated by the French King
- the Pope added 10 new Cardinals, nine of them which were French
- in 1309, he moved the Church Headquarters from Rome to Avignon, France
What did the seven Avignon Popes do?
they willingly chose to rule the Catholic Church from a place that is not the Vatican over the course of 70 years
Catherine of Sienna
- was one of the great medieval mystics
- she condemned the greed, materialism, and pride of the papal court
- urged Gregory XI to return to Rome and be a true shepherd to his flock (saying he needs to do the Will of God)
- knows the will of God because He tells her it
- Doctor of the Church
- was well educated
- had a great respect for the clergy and wanted the Papacy to be respected again
The Great Western Schism
- is a split within the church that lasted from 1378-1417, when there were two or three claimant to the papacy at once
- caused confusion for faithful Christians and also launched political maneuvering as governments took sides along political lines
What happened when Pope Gregory passed away?
- Roman mods helped elect an Italian, Urban VI while the French Cardinals said they were pressured to choose Urban VI
- the cardinals went back to France, deposed Urban, and chose a French Pope, Clement VII
- he established a papal court in Avignon
Popes of the Great Western Schism
- a council was called to declare the rightful Pope
- instead, the council deposed both the popes and chose Alexander V, but he died on his way to Rome
- then the cardinals elected Pope John XXII
- there were still three Popes after the election of John XXII
- John XXII thinks he set the record straight
- Clement VII and Urban VI eventually passed away and people did not know who the real Pope was
- when Pope John XVIII took his name, he legitimized John XXII as Pope, which was very controversial
Council of Constance
- ended the Great Western Schism and elected Martin V as the new Pope
- it did not completely end the schism because Clement stayed in power until 1429 when he resigned
the Black Death
- also called the bubonic plague
- decimated the population of Europe by 1/3
- 2/3 of Venetians lost their lives because of this plague
- came to Europe by way of Sicily in 1347
- it was spread by the bacteria carried by rats that fleas spread to humans
- spread very quickly
- the sailors were on the boat that had the infected rats that were bit by fleas
- they then went home and spread the plague
What impact did the Black Death have on the Church?
- the clergy die in large numbers
- this means people might loose the priests in their town/village so people can no longer celebrate the sacraments
- all of the men in the seminary are ordained no matter how long they have been there
- the clergy is now poorly educated which negatively impacts the Church
How long did the Conciliar movement last?
Pope Pius II
condemned the ideas that surrounded the Conciliar movement
What did the Conciliar movement decide?
that the Church Council should have power over the Pope
- bread and wine transformed into the Body and Blood of Jesus during the Liturgy of the Eucharist by the Holy Spirit
-it is not the priest, but Christ himself that changes the substance
- the power and grace of the words announced by the priest and God's power and spirit
it is a process of learning where two or more people holding different points of view have a dialogue using reasoned arguments with the purpose of arriving at a truth about a question or subject
- also known as the Liturgy of the Hours
- the official public, daily prayer of the Catholic Church
- provides standard prayers, Scripture readings, and reflections at regular hours throughout the day
- entire order comes together on the feast days that are important to their order
- do not know where they will sleep next
-modified the Rule of St. Benedict to place even greater emphasis on sacrifice and poverty to build up the Church and society
- they traveled from town to town, relying on charity for their basic needs
What modifications of the rule of Benedict did the Carthusians and Cistercians follow?
they placed even greater emphasis on sacrifice and poverty to build up the Church and society
Who started Western monasticism?
St. Anthony of Egypt when he went to live as a hermit in order to get closer to God
- based in Citeaux, France
- lived in a monastery
- abbey helped build up the French economy
- monks became leaders in technological knowledge about agricultural techniques, metal working, and textiles
- they traveled from town to town, relying on charity for their basic needs
-modified the Rule of St. Benedict to place even greater emphasis on sacrifice and poverty to build up the Church and society
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
wrote about his experience as a Cistercian monk which resulted in 350 Cisterian Abbeys being built
- lived a lifestyle associated with wealth and had even fought in some small battles
- he lived a life full of pleasures and comfort
- took a gap year, where he tried to find himself by wandering away
- had a series of spiritual events including a call from Christ to build up his Church in the chapel of San Damiano
- God tells him to build up the Church, he doesn't know what this means, but he devotes his life to carrying this out
- he gave away all of his belonging because he didn't need them and other people might
- he also renounced his inheritance and leaves his family
- took up a life of poverty committed to strengthening the Church by preaching the Good News
- he formed a religious community that lived under a rule approved by Pope Innocent III
- never wanted anything even though he was really rich
What did the new religious orders focus on?
- the Rule and Spirit of St. Benedict
- emphasized poverty, simplicity, and freedom from lay influence
What were the two Mendicant orders?
the Franciscans (the first one) and the Dominicans
- follow the example if their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, by taking up a life of complete poverty, committed to strengthening the Church by preaching the Good News
- were not connected to a particular monastery but instead begged for their sustenance and were the first mendicant order to do so
- a central theme was the imitation of Christ and of his poverty
- they have a university in Stubenville Ohio and in Baton Rouge
- their brown garments look like potato sack and this is because they live lives of poverty
- the people get around by hitchhiking
- established her first convent in 1212 under St. Francis' guidance
- grew up with a lot of independence and knows she has the capability to go out and start her own religious order
- the only man that she consults is St. Francis because he started his own religious order
- she is depicted with the monstrance because she held it up in front of the building that the army was approaching and when they are struct by the monstrance they turn back
What is Pope Francis' connection to the Franciscans?
he was the first person to pick the name Francis
- he founded an order who was dedicated to combating heresies
- wanted his order to live the monastic ideals outside of the confines of a monastery, instead traveling through the countryside to teach and preach against the heresies
- also wanted a well-educated clergy, capable of defending the Church
- order of preachers who joined university faculties and were known as the greatest intellectuals of the period
- encouraged an increase in knowledge in all areas of life
- are also called Black Friars because they wore a habit consisting of a white robe with a black robe worn over it
- lives in communal houses
- were well educated offering their service to the Church through education revealing the Truth of the Gospels and Tradition of the Church Tradition
- first people ti be put on faculties at universities
- named for the Roman style of building
- massive pillars
- round arches
- stoned roofs replaced flammable wood beams
- thick walls
- small windows
Who is one of the most famous Dominicans?
St. Thomas Aquinas
- noted for their height and tall spires reaching to heaven
- rib-vaulted ceilings
- flying buttresses-concrete arches to help hold up the walls
- high thin walls
- stained glass windows
What was the significance of the stained glass in Gothic architecture?
it tells a story that more people could read because a lot of people were illiterate
- a form of education in the Early Middle Ages
- primarily focused on the training of clergy
- were started because parents sent their children to priest when they did not to follow their family trades
- grew out of cathedral schools as European society grew and towns formed
- teachers and students began to group together to study the liberal arts (astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, and geometry) as wall as the sciences (theology, law, and medicine)
- is a type of corporation modeled on the caftsmen's guilds of the period
- as in a guild, the masters had to earn a license and the students had to earn degrees recognizing their completed studies
schools modeled on the University of Bologna specialized in law and medicine
- Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris
- specialized in the liberal arts: canon law and theology; "the queen of sciences" (formed because of St. Thomas Aquinas)
What principle is scholasticism based on?
- the rule of St. Benedict
- done in St. Scholastica's honor
- promoted "faith seeking understanding" encouraging Christians to inquire into the truths of scripture
- he said that people should want the answer to all of your question
- says you can beyond your faith if you really understand
What are the limitations of human reason?
Aquinas developed an idea of how we process things and said that God is at the center
- heretics who saw all material things as evil but that the spirit was good
- practiced tremendous fasts and severe mortification was practices
- spurred the Inquisition
- they were antisacredotal, hostile to the priesthood and rejected to dogma of the Eucharist
- they do not believe in the Eucharist because the body and blood of Christ is bad
Pope Innocent III
began a Crusade against the Albigensian heresy
Lateran Council IV
- called by Pope Innocent III
- attended by more than 1200 bishops and church officials
- established 70 canons
- defined and promulgated the doctrine of transubstantiation: that is, the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist through the transformation of the substance of bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ
What are the cannons of the Lateran Council IV?
- the enforcement of clerical celibacy and the elimination of simony (the buying of grace)
- the seal of confession
- a call for the annual confession and the Easter Duty (receiving the Eucharist at Easter)
What did the papal bull of Pope Urban IV do?
it made the Feast of the Corpus Christi a feast day for the entire church
What two devotions emerged at this time to the Blessed Sacrament?
the Feast of the Corpus Christi and the Eucharistic Adoration
Feast of the Corpus Christi
- means body of Christ
- celebrates the Body of Christ consecrated in the Mass
- in many places it is marked by the carrying of the Blessed Sacraments very reverently through the streets
- it is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday
- is sometimes celebrated on the Sunday after Trinity Sunday
- the Blessed Sacrament is in exposition in a monstrance
- on Holy Thursday, the Blessed Sacrament is placed in a ciborium on the altar after the Mass of the Last Supper
- is placed in a ciborium because Jesus is going to die on the cross the next day
- this practice stops on Good Friday
Who is credited with establishing adoration in Italy?
St. Francis of Assisi
Why do lay people get to participate in Eucharistic Adoration?
King Louis VIII asked that the Blessed Sacrament be placed on display at the Chapel of the Holy Cross in thanksgiving for the success of the Albigensian crusade (the fourth crusade)
What was the purpose of the Papal Inquisitions?
to capture and stop heretics
What is an inquisition?
someone who has authority and is trying to get rid of someone through court
What were some punishments of the Medieval Inquisitions?
- corporal punishment like flogging or execution
Why does the Vatican have two archives?
some of the information is time sensitive so not everyone needs to know all of the information
How did some people in the Church feel about the Papal Inquisitions?
many popes and St. Ambrose objected to the execution because they felt heretics should be led to conversion not executed
- an inquisition established by the Church in the nineteenth century aimed at rooting out heresies
- sometimes called the Papal Inquisitions
- comes to order in 1249 because the Church is trying to get rid of heresies
- practice of capturing and punishing heretics began in the 4th century with Constantine
- inquisitors were men chosen from the Dominican and Franciscan orders because they were well-educated and devoted to the papacy
- thus, most sentences were "canonical" penances, such as fasting, making pilgrimages, attending Mass more frequently, or wearing distinctive clothing
Pope Gregory IX
- established the Papal Inquisition in 1239
- wanted to combat heresies in Germany, Italy, and France
Who had authority over the Spanish Inquisition?
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella who stamped out opposition to their leadership, and united Spain through conformity to the Catholicism in order to bolster their authority
- was established in the late fifteenth century by the Spanish monarchs
- they were power hungry and wanted to have control over the New World
- nearly 3000 converts were executed in the first sixty years
- they thought that having a country full of Catholics would make them more powerful
- was formally abolished in 1834
Why did King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella choose to have the Inquisition?
they wanted to bolster the monarch's authority and to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in Spain
Who was targeted in the Spanish Inquisition?
recent converts to the faith, particularly Jews and Muslims because their conversions were suspected of being fake, rather than a true acceptance of the faith
What is a conversos?
Jews and Muslims who converted to Christianity, either willingly or unwillingly following the Christian takeover of Spain
Pope Sixtus IV
- authorized the Spanish Inquisition
- objected to using Church courts to persecute Jews
- demanded that the accused be allowed to appeal to Rome, to have legal counsel, and that personal enemies of the accused be disqualified as witnesses
What form did both of the inquisitions follow?
- tribunal was established: 3 inquisitors
- charges were made against a person
- witnessed were summoned (some did not know that much about the accused person)
- trial was held in a secret court (the only people that know where this is the inquisitors, witnesses, and the person on trial)
canonical punishments during the Inquisitions
- included fasting, making pilgrimages, attending mass more frequently, and wearing distinctive clothing
- some were turned over to the authorities to be put to death or imprisoned
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